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Bio 132 Intro to Animal Behavior Lecture and book notes Week 2

by: Emily Faulconer

Bio 132 Intro to Animal Behavior Lecture and book notes Week 2 132

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > 132 > Bio 132 Intro to Animal Behavior Lecture and book notes Week 2
Emily Faulconer
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These notes cover the readings and lectures from Week 2 of the Intro to Animal Behavior class. This week covered the basics of genetics, artificial selection, and natural selection as well as learn...
Intro to animal behavior
Debbie Schlenoff
Class Notes
Bio, 132, intro, to, animal, behavior, Science, Biology, debbie, schlenoff, Emily, faulconer, Genetics, artificial, selection, natural
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Faulconer on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 132 at University of Oregon taught by Debbie Schlenoff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to animal behavior in Biology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
This package of notes will include the lectures from Monday and Wednesday from Week 2, as well as book notes from the assigned readings. Disclaimer: The book notes will be minimalist, and you will need a textbook as I am avoiding any possibility of perjury. My focus will be to act as a guideline for your own reading. Biology 132 – Reading Notes CH3 – 10/2/16 (Week 2) Words of note that have definitions in the text book. - Gene Expression (28) - Alleles (30) - Heterozygous V. Homozygous (30) - Diploid (30) - Artificial Selection (33) Lesser-known words of note: - Heritability: Ratio of the variation in a population to the total amount of variability in the trait. Can very 0-1, 0.5 = 50%. - Genomics: The study of an organism’s entire genome - Proteomics: Study of the proteins that the gene codes for, and how these proteins produce and modify traits - Cross-fostering: Giving the offspring of one mother to a different mother, and vice versa, to observe the effect of nurture v. nature. - Candidate gene: A gene known for being responsible for similar behavior in different organisms. (Eg. The foraging gene in various insects). - Quantitative trait: A trait that involves many genes - Microarray analysis: Tool with which to make a gene expression profile - Epigenetics: a stable alteration in gene expression without changing the DNA sequence Regular ol’ notes: Genes and Behavior - 2 ways that genes affect behavior o Effects on the development on the nervous system and physiology o The environment and social triggers change the nervous system (or phys) which alters gene expression. - Gene to behavior sequence: o Genes code specific proteins -> proteins affect composition and organization of the animal -> this influences behavior How DNA Works (A basic explanation): - Composed of nucleotides - Consists of phosphate, nitrogenous base, and deoxyribose - 4 main bases o Adenine (A) - Must pair o Thymine (T) o Cytosine (C) o Guanine (G) - Must pair - To create/code proteins o Transcribe DNA into RNA (specifically messenger RNA or mRNA) o Translate the order of bases into proteins  1 protein = group of 3 bases/amino acids - mRNA o messenger RNA o single-stranded o uracil (U) instead of thymine o sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose Goals of Behavioral Genetics - Identify the gene/genes affecting behavior - Inspect interactions between genes and their products, and genes and the environment in order to understand why the behavior forms - Benefits of inbreeding research: o Having an inbred population promises a nearly genetically identical selection o Can help to determine if the differing behavior is based on environment or not - Conclusion: Behavior = nature AND nurture - DNA is sensitive to the environment ------------------------------------------------------------- *---------------------------------------------------------------- Bio 132 – Lecture 3 – 10/3/16 (Week 2) Nature of Science - Seeks to explain the natural world based on evidence - Tests observations of the natural world - Subject to peer review Genes - Genes and DNA in chromosomes - Contain instructions to make proteins Functions of Proteins - Enzymes control chemical reactions - Create structures (muscle, tissue, etc) - Hormones and neuro-transmitters - Sensory receptors - Regulates the genome Traits - Mendelian trait: 1 gene  1 trait - Polygenic (quantitative) trait: affected by several genes - Pleitropy: One gene has multiple affects o Eg. The PER gene is responsible for:  Circadian rhythm  Courtship songs  Hatching times Testing for genetic basis - Artificial Selection o Breed behavioral differences by selecting favorable traits  Silver fox example, breeding for tolerance to humans - Cross-fostering o To deal with questions about the effect of parental care - Manipulating genes o 1. Genetic engineering: Add a gene o 2. Knock-out genes: Deactivate a gene - Examples: o Genetic engineering  Meadow voles  Put a monogamous neuropeptide receptor from prairie voles into notoriously promiscuous meadow voles to see if they would start being monogamous  They did. True love. o Knock-out genes  Mice  Mice with no fosB gene were disinterested in pups which was abnormal maternal behavior.  Mice WITH fosB did regular maternal care - ESS and mixed ESS (evolutionary stable strategy) o ESS: one strategy works and is mostly unchallenged in its effectiveness o Mixed ESS: Multiple working strategies at play that cancel each other out. No particular winning strategy Bonus: - Weird mating ritual o Australian redback spider  Mate cannibalism/sexual suicide. Why?  Longer sex if they stick around to get eaten = more chance at fertilization success. ---------------------------------------------------------- *------------------------------------------------------------------- Bio 132 – Reading Notes CH 5 – 10/4/16 (Week 2) Learning - Learning expanded definition: change in capacity for behavior because of experience that isn’t fatigue, sensory adaption, or maturation of the nervous system Words of note (one section, all of these were pretty new): - Habituation: waning of a response to the repeated presentation of a specific stimuli - Associative learning: creation of a mental connection between two presentations of stimuli - Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that brings forth an inborn response - Unconditioned response (UR): the response to the US - Conditioned stimulus (CS): a second stimulus purposefully paired repeatedly with the US - Conditioned response (CR): Response to the conditioned stimulus - Extinction: The loss of a CR because it was not maintained - Reinforcer: a stimulus that changes the probability that an animal will change its behavior o Positive: increases the likelihood that the animal will perform a behavior o Negative: decreases the likelihood that the animal will perform a behavior - Shaping: Gradual teaching of a behavior. o Trainer rewards for the basic performance of a task, and then gradually only gives food for the more perfect/complex performances of said task. - Continuous reinforcement schedule: each occurrence of the behavior is rewarded - Fixed reinforcement schedule: animal must respond a set number of times before the reward is given - Variable ratio schedule: number of required responses before reward is given is random - Latent learning: Learning without any obvious or immediate reward - Conspecific: animal or plant of same or similar species - Stimulus enhancement: possible attraction to a particular object because a conspecific is near it - Local enhancement: attraction to a particular location because a conspecific is there - Observational conditioning: learning a behavior by watching other conspecifics - Goal-directed emulation: animal observes the goal of the behavior, but does not repeat the exact same motions to achieve the goal - Imitation: observer copies exactly what the demonstrator does - Traditions: socially learned behaviors that are spread through a group and remain stable over time Good ol’ notey notes - Habituation considered the simplest form of learning o Specific to a particular stimulus - Classical conditioning o Pavlov’s dog o Pair a stimulus to an action – bell and food powder – and get a reaction associated with the action – saliva and food powder – from the stimuli – bell.  Most effective when the CS precedes the US  The two stimuli must occur in association with each other aka close together.  CS must precede US more often than other stimuli  A conditioned response must be maintained or it will become extinct. - Operant conditioning: The animal operates on the environment to produce consequences o Trial and error - Latent learning o Gathering information for later use o Extremely important - Social learning o Stimulus enhancement o Local enhancement o Observational conditioning o Goal-directed emulation o Imitation o Traditions Bio 132 – Lecture 4 – 10/5/16 (Week 2) Nature V. Nurture - Some behaviors have a genetic basis o Dogs and digging? Epigenetics - Worker and queen bees have very different behavior. Genetic basis? - Identified over 550 genes differently marked in brain o Difference may be molecular - The environment affects which genes are expressed through chemical modification of chromosomes o Rats in enriched environments perform better in learning tasks - Different environments  molecular changes to the chromosome  change in gene expression  difference in brain structures  difference in learning ability - Not all traits actually appear to be adaptations Maintenance of non-adaptive behaviors - 1. Differing environmental conditions - 2. Genetic hitchhiking o One gene affects multiple traits (pleitropy) so if one gene is particularly useful or artificially selected then it inherits other genes with it. o One gene selected for, but many traits affected  We wanted tame foxes but we also got them colorful f Learning ability as an adaptation - Learning = change in behavior traceable to an experience of the individual - Environments change rapidly, animals that can learn can adapt and benefit Spatial memory as adaption - Jays cache seeds - Species dependent on stored seeds will have better spatial memory - Learning ability is a product of natural selection Types of Learning: - Habituation - Classical conditioning o Associates a formerly neutral stimulus with one that brings a response - Operant Conditioning o Animal associates a voluntary action with a consequence  The Merovingian speaks true! (Matrix reference) o Trial and error  Reinforcement from getting it right - Latent learning - Rule and concept learning o Animals apply prior experience to problems of a similar type


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