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Psych 101 - week 1

by: Sadiq Alkhattabi

Psych 101 - week 1 PSYCH 101

Sadiq Alkhattabi
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The summary of chapter one which was discussed for week one and half of week two of the course
Introduction to Psychology
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadiq Alkhattabi on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 101 at University of Washington taught by TUROWSKI, TABITHA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Psych 101 Sadiq Alkhattabi Week 1 - chapter 1 Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? -Psychology’s roots - Before 300 B.C.E., Aristotle theorized about behavior and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality. - There we two schools of thought: - Structuralism - functionalism - Structuralism used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind - Functionalism, which was influenced by Darwin, explored how mental and behavioral processes function. Enabling organisms to adapt , survive and flourish. - The class is not concerned with history and does not require you to memorize all the names in the field of psychology; However, you should be familiar with the names you see repeated often. - Psychology is defined today as : “The science of behavior and mental processes” - a Behavior is anything an organism does - a Mental processes are the internal subjective experiences we inter from behavior - Contemporary Psychology : - Psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and biology - Psychology’s biggest questions : - The Nature-Nurture Issue : a controversy over the relative contribution that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behavior. - Plato assumed that we inherit character and intelligence - Aristotle on the other hand countered that there is nothing in the mind that does not first come in from the external world through the senses. - Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection has brought more insight into nature’s influence on behavior. - Psychology’s three main levels of analysis:- - Different levels of analysis form a “BioPsychoSocial” approach, which integrates the biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors that may have an effect on the specific behavior analyzed. - Each level provides a point of view about a behavior or a mental process, yet, each by itself is incomplete. From “Exploring Psychology” by David G. Myers (Ninth Ed) 1 Psych 101 Sadiq Alkhattabi Week 1 - chapter 1 - Psychology’s Subfields : - “Describing and explaining behavior and the mind underlying it” is the quest shared by all psychology’s subfields. - The subfields are :- - Basic Research : Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. - Applied Research: Scientific research that aims to solve practical problems - Counseling psychology: A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving their well-being. - Clinical psychology: a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders. - Psychiatry : A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy. - Positive psychology: the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strength and virtues that help communities and individuals to thrive. - The need for Psychological sciences:- - Psychologists use this science to better understand why people think, feel, and act as they do. - What about intuition and common sense? - Our minds, including thinking and memory, operates on two levels: - The conscious - The Unconscious - Madeline L’Eugle (1973), illustrates why we cannot solely rely on our intuition and common sense; through three phenomenas. - Hindsight Bias - Judgmental Overconfidence - Perceiving patterns in random events - Hindsight Bias is the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (aka the I-Knew-It-All-Along phenomena) - Judgmental Overconfidence: We humans tend to think we know more than we do - Perceiving order in random events : We are prone to perceive patterns; even in random data we find order. #fact: “random sequences often don't look random” (Falk et al.,2009;Nickerson,2002,2005) - These three phenomenas often lead us to overestimate our intuition. but scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion. From “Exploring Psychology” by David G. Myers (Ninth Ed) 2 Psych 101 Sadiq Alkhattabi Week 1 - chapter 1 - The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble. - Critical thinking: It is smart thinking; examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions. - How do psychologists ask and answer questions : - Psychologists use the scientific method, a self correcting process for evaluating ideas with observation and analysis. - In science, a theory is an explanation with principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events. - A hypothesis is a testable prediction often implied by a theory. - Psychologists report their research with precise “Operational definitions”; a statement of the procedure(Operations) used to define research available. - Using these statements, other psychologists could replicate the same original observations with different participant, materials, and circumstances. - Description:- - The starting point of any science is description. Psychologists do the same through; - Case studies (deep analysis of special individuals on a case by case basis) - Naturalistic observation (Recording behavior in a natural setting) - Surveys and interviews (Self reports from individual about their behavior) - Correlation :- - Description often leads us to observe that one trait or behavior is relater to another. In such cases we say the two Correlate. - The Correlation Coefficient indicates how closely two things vary together, and how well either one predicts the other. - Correlation and Causation: - Correlations help us predict. A prediction is not a fact. - Correlation DOES NOT mean Causation. - Experimentation - To answer questions, to isolate cause and effect, researches can experiment. - Experiments enable researches to isolate the effect of one or more factors by: - Manipulating the factor of interest - Holding constant (controlling) other factors. - Dependent and Independent Variables - The independent variable is the manipulated factor in the experiment. - The dependent variable the factor examined and happens to be under the effect of the manipulation of the independent variables. - The testing effect: Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. From “Exploring Psychology” by David G. Myers (Ninth Ed) 3


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