DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURES AND RECITATION NOTES
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURES AND RECITATION NOTES 1004
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Vaughan on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH Child Psychology Developmental Psychology 1. Child psychology 1. Focus: Childhood 2. What: Human children Task: Can we describe the behavior of children? Examples: Does violence on TV have same effect on children of different ages? 2. Developmental Psychology 1. Focus: Full lifespan 2. What: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Elderly, Nonhumans 3. Task: Can we predict later life from events earlier in life? Are earlier events “causal”? If so— can we change the developmental outcome? Examples: Schizophrenic moms Choo-Choo monkeys — harry harlow throws in the towel Children of depressed moms children of ETOH parents Child abuse The conduct disordered Stealing and truancy Child’s prognosis A chainsaw story REASERCH DESIGNS Cross- Sectional 1. Hypothesis 1. AGE DIFFERENCES 2. IQ differs across age groups neuronal loss 3. Design 1. Age group samples 4. 20 40 60 80 100 Longitudinal 1. Hypothesis 1. AGE CHANGES 2. IQ Changes with age 3. Design 1. Same people across time (eg: Kagan and Moss) 4. 1929…………………..1959 PROBLEMS WITH THESE RESEARCH DESIGNS Cross-Sectional 1. “Cohort Effect” —— important for test 2. Intro. Psych. 1. 9-11 Longitudinal 1. Cost!!! 2. Reactivity effects 3. Attrition 4. Instrumentation 5. Choice of measures 6. “Cohort Effect” The Cross— Sequential Design (important) 1. A possible solution— allows for measurement of the cohort effect 2. combination of cross section and longitudinal Two Meta Theories 1. Empiricists (nurture) 1. John Locke— 1690 2. Human Mind at birth is a “tabula rasa” (blank slate) Focus: Life experiences Development= learning Development= Smooth continuous process 3. Continuum 2. Rationalist (nature) 1. Descartes, Kant 2. Human Mind has innate ideas even at birth (e,g: GOD) 3. This was a problem on coming to america 4. Native Americans must be less than human Focus: Maturation Development= maturation Development=abrupt biological changes 5. Stages DEVELOPMENT DEFINED An interaction between maturation and experience Maturation— a biological unfolding Experience— learning SIGMUND FREUD Treated “anna o” a 21 year old with “hysteria” Stage theory Invariant sequence or order of development Linked learning to maturation Early Experience Hypothesis (important) Fixation if needs at each stage are not adequately met FREUD’S STAGE THEORY Based on self-gratification or pleasure Basic view of human nature STAGES 1. oral 2. anal 3. phallic 4. latent 5. genital FREUD’S STRUCTUAL MODEL 1. ID 1. Animal instincts present at birth 2. need for immediate gratification 3. we are often punished for these 2. SUEREGO 1. Societal rules, make us feel guilty 3. EGO 1. Efficient pleasure seeking 2. balances demands of ID and superego .….The red light….. PIAGET French developmentalist Died 1978 or 79 Biological stages Overlap due to Experimental influences Vertical De’Collage (There is overlap) Piaget’s Stages 1. Defined primary Accomplishment 2. Stages 3. Sensorimotor (0-2) 1. Object permanence 4. Pre operational (2-7) 1. Use of language 5. Concrete operational (7-12) 1. Conservation 2. Relational thought 3. Number (6), mass (7), Weight (9) 6. Formal Operational (12+) 1. Abstract Concepts 2. Reasoning by hypothesis— not by trial and error Psychology Development cont. Egocentrism Developmental goal for Piaget= DECENTRATION 3. Accommodation 4. Assimilation The concept or SCHEMA ——> Accommodate <— — Assimilate Thumb sucking———— Nipple Critical periods in Development? 5. “A window in time” —— | — — | ——> 6. Circumstances 1. Have lasting and irreversible consequences EXAMPLES: a. Embryonic Development “The FLK Syndrome” b. Dog Domestication The 14th week is last chance to domesticate it. c. Childhood Emotional Attachment “1st Three Years” Building trust d. Infant Communication Babble Uniformly 0-6 months (across cultures) Loss of sounds other than native Tongue e. Gender Identification “David Reimer” “A boy without a Penis” He always knew he was a boy even though his family tried to raise him as a girl. Environmental Enrichment and Deprivation 5. Classic Orphanage Research Psychologists THOUGHT that early motor Development was thought to be mostly Maturation. HOWEVER As seen in orphanages only 42% could sit alone at age 2 as opposed to the normal age for that milestone: 8 months 3. Primate Research 1. Reared in diffuse light which produced retarded development. 2. Next the psychologists gave the monkeys an enriched environment which produced resiliency and they required less experience to catch up. 3. What would Piaget say? This is because of the BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM (Maturation) 4. Canine Research 1. Reared without human contact and confined 2. Result: “stupid dogs” 3. not found to be resilient 4. Generally EARLY DEPRIVATION results in Animals and humans that do not learn as quickly 5. Incubators 1 THE 1960s, DDT, and Sterile Environments 2. Researchers Discover the incubator effect+++ 1 Retarded development 3. Attempted to enrich the incubator 1 Added sounds, movement, color, etc 4. Results 1 Accelerated rate of development 5. A NATION FOCUSED ON ENRICHMENT RUN DOWN Hospitals put babies in white, silent, still environments immediately after birth, instead of moms tummy. Turns out this early deprivation caused retarded development. So psychologists decided to enrich the incubators with colors, noises (mom’s belly), springs. RESULTS: Accelerated Rate of Development And so the nation becomes focused on enrichment PIAGET cautions: 7. Isolation or Deprivation= Aversive 8. Child will seek stimulation 1 Kids will respond better to being carried in a backpack while dad vacuums than being put in a play pin while dad vacuums— they will be calmer and less restless. 9. Stimulation must be appropriate to the developmental level 1 THE BIOLOGICAL PLATFORM One More Orphanage Experiment Surrogate mother volunteers go to orphanages and hold, play, and interact with young children for a year. 3. children in orphanages with “surrogate parent” volunteers gained 32 IQ points over a year 4. The control group lost 21 IQ points over that year. Development of Social Attachment 3. Harry Harlow 1. Past President of A.P.A 2. “Mother Love” Harry was interested in love. What is the Critical ingredient? 6. Most thought it was mothers giving them adequate nutrition 7. Harry said: Contact comfort was what caused love In a study with monkeys: a. The monkey reared with a lack of contact comfort but plenty of nutrition— result: Choo-Choo or crazy monkeys, shows a lot of fear. b. The monkey reared with soft, comforting “mother” goes to mother for comfort and conquers his fear. Contact would help the monkeys recover. Child rearing Practices 4. A commentary on: how to raise your child 5. Spock— “let they baby cry for 20 minutes” 6. Church— Strict vs. Liberal? Children raised liberally leave home earlier. BUT the critical ingredients are love and comfort and if the child doesn’t get those things you will encounter problems later on: 3. Neuroticism 4. Aggressiveness 5. Submissiveness 6. Poor “impulse control” Geropsychology 1. Why aging?— Demographic THIS WON’T BE ON EXAM BUT IT’S IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE EXAM WILL BE 50 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS. Psychology Developmental Psychology (Recitation) A scientific approach which aims to explain how children and adults change over time. Why are we the Way we are? Nature vs Nurture 5. The importance of an individual’s inate qualities as opposed to experience. Gene by environment interactions 7. useful for understanding diseases. 8. How genes can make us more or less susceptible/sensitive to the environment. Diathesis Stress model 6. Predisposition vulnerability combined with stress from environmental conditions. Bio, Psycho, Social model. These realms interact and affect our development. Equifinality Cause A \ Cause B — Outcome X Cause C / How different experiences in life can lead to similar outcomes Multifinality / Outcome X Cause B — Outcome Y \ Outcome Z Different outcomes from a similar experience. Critical Period 6. A maturational stage in the life span of an organism during which the nervous system is especially sensitive to environmental stimuli. 7. If you don’t learn a function/skill by this time it can be difficult or impossible to do so later on. Sensitive Period 10. Overlapping periods of development where a child is sensitive to a particular stimuli. Piaget: cognitive development Sensorimotor Period 5. Birth through 2 years 6. only aware of what is immediately in front of them 7. Exploratory 8. Object permanence is developed Pre operational period 27 years of age 4. toddlerhoodearly childhood 5. Begin to think about things symbolically 6. language matures 7. still struggle with abstract concepts 8. Egocentrism— everyone sees the world the way I do 9. Conservation— recognizing volume changes/ or stays the same despite the shape or container Concrete operational stage Formal Operational stage 8. adolescent adulthood 9. able to understand abstract concepts Social development 1. Harry Harlow 1 Monkeys and motherly love 2. Separation anxiety 1 set of fearful responses that an infant exhibits when a care giver leaves. (6 months) 3. Strange Situation 1 Secure attachment close to mom and then comforted by mom when she comes back. 2 Resistant attachment close to mom but show approach and avoidance behaviors when she comes back. possibly angry with mom for leaving. Don’t know if she’ll be comforting 3 Avoidant attachment— don’t cry when mom leaves and ignore mom when she comes back. Parent may be emotionally unavailable or rejecting. 4 Disoriented attachment— react to mom in contradictory ways. Are often abused or neglected so they don’t know how to act. The Heinz Case 7. Kohlberg— moral development