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PSYCH Critical Thinking Week 6 Notes

by: Camryn Hohneker

PSYCH Critical Thinking Week 6 Notes Psyc 130

Marketplace > California State University Long Beach > Psychology > Psyc 130 > PSYCH Critical Thinking Week 6 Notes
Camryn Hohneker
Long Beach State

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Lecture Notes from week 6
Critical Thinking
Judy Quon
Class Notes
psych, psy, Psychology, critical thinking, notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camryn Hohneker on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 130 at California State University Long Beach taught by Judy Quon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in Psychology at California State University Long Beach.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Psych Week 6 H5 Analyzing Arguments  Hear the word “arguments” what comes to mind?  Argument: one+ statements (reasons) used to provide support for a conclusion. o purpose is to change a person's view/belief from old to new, with use of reasoning (convincing) o Encounter arguments on almost daily basis  Three situations of arguments/convincing/persuasion o 1. Someone tries to convince you o 2. You try to convince someone else o 3. You try to convince yourself Examples of Arguments (Bensley) 1. The Storage capacity of STM is 7+-2 a. NOT an argument, just a statement of fact. 2. Because Mary felt very anxious just seeing a picture of a snake, her therapist decided she had a phobia of snakes. . YES, this is an argument 3. After observing many young children trying to solve the problem, the psychologist decided that only older children and adults could solve the problem. . YES, this is an argument 4. Emotions are motivated states associated with subjective experiences as feelings, expressive behaviors such as frowning and psychological arousal such as increased heart rates. . NOT an argument, just a statement. Types of Sentences (and functions) that Comprise Arguments  Only declarative sentences with truth-value: determine True/False  Declarative Sentences: announcement, convey information. Subject precedes verb. o ex. Tom gave Sam a ticket to the game.  NOT Interrogative Sentences: a question, seeks information. o ex. Did Tom give Sam a ticket? Or, What did Tom give Sam?  NOT Imperative Sentences: a command to do something. Begins with verb, no stated subject. o ex. Give Sam a ticket to the game.  NOT Exclamatory Sentences: express a strong impression. Many times begin with what or how. o ex. What a ticket to the game!  NOT Wishful Thinking: express desires o ex. I want a ticket to the game. Examples: Types of Sentences for Arguments  6. Everyone should brush his/her teeth at least 1x a day. o Yes.  7. Your instructor for this class is a male. o Yes.  8. I wish i were taller. o No. Wishful thinking.  9. Say Chinese o No. Cannot determine declarative and truth value.  10. Every mollusk can contract myxomatosis. o Yes. Anatomy of an Argument 1. Premises 2. Conclusion 3. Assumptions 4. Counterargument 5. Qualifiers  Every argument has at least on premise and at least one conclusion; otherwise it's not an argument o no evidence or reason, making a statement o Premise(s) + Conclusion = Argument  Premise: statements (reasons, evidence) that support conclusion; “why” part of argument o can be found at beginning, middle, or end of statements, unstated/implied o Premise indicators/makers- often (not always) signal premise is following.  ex. because, for, if, since, given that, as shown by/indicated by, the reasons are, it may be inferred/deduced from, the evidence consists of, in first place/secondly, etc., seeing/assuming that, it follows from, whereas… o Facts: information known to be true, verifiable  documents, supported by research, law, etc.  tastes are facts! (sweet, salty, bitter, sour, etc.) o Opinions: personal response to situation or facts  Examples: o 1. People should exercise because it has been shown to build a strong cardiovascular system.  Fact. o 2. People should exercise because it is fun.  Opinion. o 3. You should buy Marie Calendar’s pecan pie because it is sweet.  Fact. o 4. You should not buy Marie Calendar’s pecan pie because it is too sweet.  Opinion.  Conclusions: the belief, point of view, or claim supported by premises; the “what”/purpose of argument o strategy: identify conclusion first o conclusion indicators often (not always) signals conclusion is following  therefore, hence, so, thus, then, consequently, in summary, as a result, etc.  Assumptions: some proof to support statement(s) but needs more data; a hypothesis, an educated guess o diff. from facts and opinions o not needed for an argument o can be stated or unstated o ex: People should exercise because it reduces stress.  need more evidence  Qualifiers: clarifies conditions of conclusion. Has to be stated.  not needed for an argument o ex. Jenny Craig is the best diet plan if people stick to it.  Counterarguments: statements that refute the conclusion. Has to be stated o reasons to reject conclusion o counterarguments-doesn't change the other argument factors (conclusion, premise, assumption and qualifier) o it’s its own argument o Counterarguments- weaker than the main argument  Unstated Assumptions: o ideas inferred from statements in the argument o viewed to be true in order for statement to have impact o all arguments have these  Missing Components: excluded information in argument that supports other view of conclusion o false statements are rare because of consequences o to identify missing components-change point of view to advocate for “other side” of issue/topic o all arguments have these o to identify missing components: change point of view to advocate for “other side” of issue/topic


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