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Principles of Biology: Respiration Lecture Notes

by: Margaret Vaughan

Principles of Biology: Respiration Lecture Notes 1105

Marketplace > Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University > Biology > 1105 > Principles of Biology Respiration Lecture Notes
Margaret Vaughan
Virginia Tech

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This document contains the notes taken from one lecture in Principles of Biology, 1105, regarding respiration. These notes contain information not included in the PowerPoints that will be valuable ...
Principles of Biology
Andrew Muchlinski
Class Notes
Biology, Principles of biology, Respiration, Cellular Respiration, krebs cycle, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, ATP, Lecture Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Vaughan on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Andrew Muchlinski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 10/06/16
Principles of Biology Respiration Organisms can be classified based on how they obtain energy Some produce their own organic molecules through photosynthesis (95%) of species some live on organic molecules from other organisms respiration: releasing CO2 Aerobic respiration sugar and oxygen _______ co2 and water this large amount of energy must be released in small steps rather than all at once. each time you go down a level you produce ATP. Types: Aerobic Respiration oxygen is present Final electron receptor is oxygen Anaerobic respiration Final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule (not O2) Final electron acceptor is an organic molecule electron carriers Many types are used Soluble, membrane-bound, can move within membrane all carriers can be easily OXIDIZED AND REDUCED (REDOX) Some carry just electrons, some electrons AND protons. Loss of Electrons Oxidized Gain of Electrons Reduced ATP Synthesis Cells are able to make ATP via: 1. SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION- transferring a phosphate directly to ADP from another molecule 2. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION- use of ATP synthase and energy derived from electron transport chain to make ATP 1. Vast majority of ATP is produced this way Glucose Oxidation proceeds in FOUR STAGES: 1. Glycolysis 2. pyruvate oxidation 3. Krebs cycle 4. electron transport chain and chemiosmosis Step one— glycolysis 1. converts glucose to pyruvate 2. 10 step biochemical pathway 3. occurs in the cytoplasm 4. Net production of 2 ATP molecules by substrate-level phosphorylation 5. 2 NADH produced by the reduction of NAD+ For glycolysis to continue NADH must be recycled to NAD+ Step Two— pyruvate oxidation 1. pyruvate is oxidized in the presence of oxygen 2. occurs in the plasma membrane of prokaryotes BUT mitochondria of eukaryotes 3. catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase Each 3 carbon pyruvate is used to generate: 1. 1 CO2 2. 1 NADH 3. 1 Acetyl-CoA Step three- Krebs cycle 1. oxidizes the acetyl group from pyruvate 2. occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria 3. biochemical pathway of 9 steps in three segments 1. acetyl- CoA + oxaloacetate——> citrate 2. citrate rearrangement and decarboxylation 3. regeneration of oxaloacetate For each Acetyl-CoA entering: 1. Release 2 molecules of CO2 2. Reduce 3 NAD+ to 3 NADH 3. reduce 1 Fad (electron carrier) to FADH2 4. Produce 1 ATP 5. Regenerate oxaloacetate At this point on glucose molecule has been oxidized to 6 CO2 10 Nadh 2 Fadh2 4 ATP


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