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BIOL 1543, Chapter 8

by: Kenzie Miller

BIOL 1543, Chapter 8 BIOL 1543

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Biology > BIOL 1543 > BIOL 1543 Chapter 8
Kenzie Miller
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the main topics in chapter 8.
Principles of Biology
Dr. Shadwick
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Miller on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1543 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Shadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 10/06/16
Chapter 8: Photosynthesis Highlight​ = Key Term Highlight​ = Major Concept Photosynthesis ● Converts solar energy → chemical energy of carbohydrate rates ● Pigments allow organisms to capture solar energy ● Most photosynthetic organisms contain pigment chlorophyll ● common pigment group = carotenoids (found in carrots) ● Occurs in green parts of the plants ○ Particularly leaves, contain chlorophyll and other pigments ● Leaves → mesophyll tissue specialized for photosynthesis ● water and CO2 ● Water → taken up by roots → transported to leaves ● Carbon dioxide enters through stomata (openings in the leaves called) ● Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll ● chloroplast and stroma​ are surrounded by double membrane ● Thylakoids​-different membrane system within the stroma ● Thylakoid space → formed by connections between individual thylakoids Photosynthetic Reaction ● Glucose and oxygen are products ● Oxygen give off comes from water ● CO2 gains hydrogen atoms and becomes a carbohydrate ○ 6CO +26 H O 2 C H O 6 612 6 2 Reactions ● Light reactions​ (light-dependent) ● Calvin reactions​ (light-independent) Plants and Solar Energy ● electromagnetic spectrum → short gamma rays to long radio waves ● White or visible light only a small portion of the spectrum ● Visible light is divided into wavelengths (380 & 750nm) Visible Light ● various wavelengths ● The colors of visible light: ○ Violet light ■ Shortest wavelength but high energy ○ Red light ■ Longest wavelength but low energy ● Photosynthetic pigments ○ absorb various portions of visible light ● Green light is reflected Light Reactions ● in thylakoid membrane ● 2 pathways ○ Noncyclic electron pathway ○ Cyclic electron pathway ● Both pathways ​transform solar energy to chemical energy ● Both produce ATP ● noncyclic produces NADPH Noncyclic electron Pathway ● Noncyclic electron pathway ● 2 photosystems ■ Photosystem I ■ Photosystem II ● photosystem consists of a pigment complex and electron acceptors within the thylakoid membrane ● The pigment complex acts as an antenna for capturing solar energy ● Begins with photosystem II ○ Pigment complex absorbs solar energy ○ Energy passes from one pigment to another until in reaction center ■ Chlorophyll a molecule ○ Electrons become energized ■ Escape from reaction center and move to a nearby electron acceptor ○ Photosystem II would disappear without replacement electrons ■ Electrons provided by splitting water ■ Releases O2 to atmosphere ■ Hydrogen ions stay in the thylakoid space ■ Contribute to formation of hydrogen ion gradient ● Electrons pass down an electron transport chain ● Energy is released to pump H+ ions into thylakoid space ● hydrogen ion flow through ATP synthase it makes ATP ● PSI comes next ○ Photosystem I complex absorbs solar energy,​ electrons pass to NADP+ ■ Low energy photosystem II electrons replace the ones lost during photosystem I ■ Electron acceptor in photosystem I passes electrons to NADP+ → then becomes NADPH Thylakoid Membrane ● Photosystem II ○ Pigment complex & electron acceptors ○ Water splits and replaces electrons ○ Oxygen is released ● Electron Transport Chain ○ Carries electrons between Photosystem II to Photosystem I ○ Pumps H+ from stroma into thylakoid space ● Photosystem I ○ Pigment complex & electron acceptors ○ Its adjacent to the enzyme to that reduces NADP+ to NADPH ● ATP synthase complex ○ Has channel for H+ flow ○ The flow pushes ATP synthase to join ADP and P Which molecule accepts the electrons in cellular respiration? Water What about in the electron transport chain? NADP+ Plants - Carbon Dioxide ● Calvin Cycle ○ Metabolic pathway ■ Uses CO2 to produce carbohydrate ○ Includes ■ CO2 fixation ■ CO2 reduction ■ Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate (RuBP) Carbon dioxide fixation​ is the 1st step ● CO2 attached to 5-carbon RuBP molecule ○ Occurs 3 times ○ Results in a 6-carbon molecule that splits into two 3-carbon molecules ● RuBP Carboxylase ● Enzyme that makes this happen ● Slow enzyme, so there needs to be a lot of it CO2 Reduction ● 3PG molecule undergoes reduction to G3P ○ ATP and NADPH allow this reaction to occur ■ ATP and P goes in → G3P comes out RuBP Regeneration ● Takes ​3 turns of calvin cycle to get one G3P to leave ○ For 1 turn of calvin cycle → 5 G3P are used ■ This reforms 3 RuBP Importance of Calvin Cycle ● G3P can be converted to other molecules ○ These molecules will provide for the plant ● The hydrocarbon skeleton of G3P forms ○ Fatty acids and glycerol → make plant oil ○ Glucose phosphate ○ Fructose ○ Starch and cellulose ○ Amino acids Do plants have mitochondria? Yes Photosynthesis Vs Cellular Respiration ● Cellular respiration occurs in plant and animal cells ○ Occurs in mitochondria ○ Breaks down glucose ○ Uses O2 → gives off CO2 ● Plant cells use photosynthesis, animal cells don’t ○ Occurs in chloroplast ○ Builds glucose ○ Uses CO2 → gives off O2 ● For ATP production, both processes use electron transport chains and chemiosmosis


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