Week 6 Notes!
Week 6 Notes! History 2320-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maricela Castro on Thursday October 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2320-001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Bryan S. Glass in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization to Date in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 10/06/16
HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 6 10/3/2016 Recap: We were discussing the aristocracy in the 18 century. Who were their critics? The Bourgeoisie. What were their critiques of the aristocrats? Lifestyle of Luxury, idleness, hedonism, parasites of people below them because they’re taking taxes from them, etc. Bourgeoisie saw themselves as... th Ø Proletariat v. Bourgeoisie v. Aristocracy (18 century prior to the French Revolution) Proletariat Bourgeoisie Aristocracy • Working • Nationalists • Globalism • 83% • Hardworking • Lazy • Sober • Drunk • Thrifty (save • Spend thrifts (waste $) money) Ø The Proletariats, are they drunks or sober? It depends, if they’re religious or not. Sober ones would be the English Methodists. Ø Spend thrift v thrifting for proletariats, that category doesn’t apply to them, they don’t have much. Ø ADAM SMITH o Laissez faire not overburden by regulation or free trade. o What is AS outlook? Global or nationalist? You can argue this either way. o Does NOT advocate any protection. o He’s saying the cheapest should survive, this allows for competition, competition breeds success. o Appeal investors and stockholders. Stockholders are the ones who choose whether to keep doing business with you if they’re making money off of you. Ø Aristocrats are more in favor of free trade than the Bourgeoisie. Ø Members of the Bourgeoisie in the lower end are…skilled artisans, wealthy shopkeepers. They’re the ones demanding to be given the right to participate politically. Ø 18 century major point to know is… Ø THE ENLIGHTENMENT Ø Defined: an intellectual and scientific movement of 18th century Europe which was characterized by a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues. o The Age of Enlightenment led directly to the American Revolution and French Revolution and strongly influenced the Industrial Revolution. Ø (revisit) Deism defined, idea that God is not listening to your every word, you have to listen to nature. o Grows during the enlightenment o Began in 17 century HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 6 Ø Ø One of the major enlightenment thinkers were: Ø E. Kant (P) o Kant said the enlightenment was an expression of intellectual maturity where you could attain, understanding solely by using reason not influenced by dogma, superstition or another person’s opinion. You use your reason to understand anything. o Have the courage to know o Dogma: an official system of principles or tenets concerning faith, morals, behavior, etc., as of a church. o Superstitions: a belief or notion, not based on reason or knowledge, in or of the ominous significance of a particular thing, circumstance, occurrence, proceeding, or the like. o Problem proving someone of religion is that they run by faith. o Shouldn’t let other people and their opinions influence your though process. Ø Philosophes o French for “philosophers” o Famous writers and thinkers (intellectuals) of the enlightenment. Major inspirations came from John Locke English Thinker and also Isaac Newton. Ø Major themes of the enlightenment o 1—They elevate human reason to a position of paramount philosophical importance. § They said that reason was superior to religious faith according to the enlightenment thinkers § By using your reason you have the ability to understand how the world operated. § Scientific laws governed music behavior (gives rise to the social sciences) § With these social sciences you can figure out how people behave o 2—Deism o 3—Progress and reform § capital punishment—Cesare Beccaria: judicial torture and capital punishment where the punishment didn’t fit the crime. § Who wrote the laws? Aristocrats were writing them to protect themselves not in the interest of the public Ø Social sciences: Scientific laws and theories to determine human behavior o Political science, psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics o Taken scientific laws and applying them to human behavior doesn’t always work out 10/5/2016 Recap: The Enlightenment, began major figures and themes of enlightenment, one enlightenment figure that perfectly encapsulates all of the themes of enlightenments isair. Ø We do NOT have class this coming Monday Oct. 10, so the midterm is the following Monday Oct. 17 instead of Wednesday Oct. 12 HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 6 Ø Voltaire : o Committed to scientific rationality, contempt for established religion, and liberty and justice. In favor of… o Sex outside of marriage, claimed you couldn’t be happy with having sex with the same person for the rest of your life. o What does this make him in a philosophical category? o He’s enlightenment and… § Utilitarianism: Greatest happiness for the greatest number of people Ø Baron de Montesquieu o Most influential political writer of the enlightenment o All about the Separation of powers § The way our constitution is set up today is taken from Montesquieu § The Spirit of the Laws (1748) o Supreme courts can’t be influenced by people of lobbyists or trends; they’re entitled for life. o The United States is the enlightenment country, structured on enlightenment principles. o Three forms of governments that exists in the world § Republic—you elect reps and those reps are your voice at state, local, city, county, and national level. § Monarchies—Constitutional Monarchy, not above the law, bound by the law, parliament or some form of congressional body holds them accountable for passing laws and abiding by them. Ex. Britain § Despotisms • Absolute Monarchies o Why is absolutism monarchy a despotism? Because they’re above the law, can do whatever they want. • Vladimir Putin o He said the only one worth having was a Republic. Ø Jean-Jacques Rousseau =Romanticism o He’s an enlightenment thinker, NOT of the enlightenment, REACTING against the enlightenment. HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 6 o Doesn’t put a great influence on reason. o Distrusted reason o Big proponent of emotionalism. o His work lays the ground work for the reactionary movement that is against enlightenment known as Romanticism o Godfather of Romanticism o Classical music, then romantic music § Classical music fits in with the enlightenment because it’s music of reason, Mozart. § Whereas romantic music is not of reason, you never know what will happen, Beethoven. § Classical music=pattern § Romantic music=no pattern o Romantic music takes its inspiration from baroque music, shunning classical, making it more emotional than baroque. o Idealized the uncorrupted condition of humanity § State of nature, state in which we are born § Referring back to John Locke § Born with inalienable rights endowed by creator § He sees it at being there’s no social contract, you don’t have to give away anything, there is no giving away, you keep everything you’re born with. Ø Thomas Paine o Paine is an English publicist and propagandist. o Arguably most radical of all enlightenments political theorists o In his work Common Sense 1776 he presents the case for American independence o Hated hereditary monarchy, pushed for republican forms of government around the world. o Easy to admire because of his uncompromising beliefs, he decides this is the way it should be full force with no exceptions. o He’s not of the enlightenment, but he is in pushing for republic in riding of the monarchies. o Will of the people must be served, the rights of man, everyone. o Believes in intellectual capabilities of everyone o Radical. o Says the monarchy is related to the aristocracy and both exist only for lazy enjoyment, parasites that the bourgeoisie were talking about. Ø Mary Wollstonecraft o Enlightenment o Education of the rights of woman o Pushing for men and women to get the same education HIST 2320.001 WESTERN CIVILIZATION 1715 TO PRESENT WEEK 6 o Equal intellectually, o Daughter: Mary Shelly § Writes Frankenstein § Romantic novel § What is the moral of the story? • It’s against enlightenment and that scientific advancement going way too fast. Ø Enlightenment: Looking to nature to find the answers, reason, liberty and justice, rationality Ø Romanticism: Emotion, basic human instincts, rights we are born with that guide us through life. Ø Denis Diderot o Along with Voltaire, he attacks Christian sexual morality, pushes for sexual permissiveness for happiness. o Dark side:Marquis de Sade § Who is he? Where we get the word Satanism from. § What is Satanism? Pleasurable administration of pain. Using violence in sexual encounters § More mainstream like Diderot and Voltaire, prostitution became much more widespread in the 19 Century, in the 19 century the Victorian reaction against the enlightenment comes from the following: • You marry 1 person, and only have sex with that one person for the rest of your life. • Pornographic prints became extremely popular • Beginning of playboy • Erotic literature began appearing J Thank you for reading! PLEASE CONTACT ME IF THERE’S ANY ERRORS OR MISSING POINTS I’D BE GLAD TO ADDRESS THEM. CONTACT ME IF YOU’D LIKE YOUR EMAIL ON FILE TO BE A DIFFERENT ONE. FEEL FREE TO RESPOND TO ME AT firstname.lastname@example.org IF YOU’RE HAVING TROUBLE ACCESSING THE NOTES. J