Chapter 6 - Philosophies of Education
Chapter 6 - Philosophies of Education EDU 202-2001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Micah Haji-Sheikh on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 202-2001 at College of Southern Nevada taught by Robert Shkorupa in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Secondary Education in Education at College of Southern Nevada.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 6 - Philosophy of Education I. Finding Your Philosophy of Education ● Philosophy - Philo = “Love”; Sophos = “Wisdom” ❏ What is the purpose of education? ❏ What content and skills should schools teach? ❏ How should schools teach this content? ❏ What are proper roles for teachers and students? ❏ How should learning be measured? II. Inventory of Philosophies of Education ● (Book Activity) III. Five Philosophies of Education - Essentialism - Perennialism - Progressivism - Social Reconstructionism - Existentialism - Not limited to these five IV. Teacher-Centered Philosophies ● Transferring knowledge, information, and skills from the older/wiser generation to the younger one. A. Essentialism ● Essentialism - strives to teach students the accumulated knowledge of our civilization through core courses in traditional academic disciplines ○ “Essentials” of academic knowledge, patriotism and character ○ Back-to-Basics - designed to train the mind, promote reasoning, and ensure a common culture ○ William Bagley - Coined “Essentialism” in the 1930’s ■ Some feel that the period after WWII (sputnik, A Nation at Risk, NCLB etc.) should be referred to as neoessentialism. ○ E.D. Hirsch Jr. - Advocates for a more inclusive curriculum that offers all students a shared knowledge (similar to the common school) ○ Core Curriculum - Traditional disciplines; math, science, history, foreign language, and literature ■ Only by mastering the skills needed at a level can a student proceed to the next. ● Classrooms should be teacher oriented. B. Perennialism ● Perennialism - Organizing schooling around books, ideas, and concepts. ○ Also teacher oriented ○ Push for “cultural literacy” ○ Perennial means everlasting ○ Students learn from Great Books. ■ Great Books - Works by history's finest thinkers and writers. Books as meaningful today as they were when first written ○ Develop rational thought and disciplined minds ● Mortimer Adler - Proposed students go to single elementary/secondary school, with one curriculum, and the only elective behind a secondary language ● Robert Hutchins - While president of the University of Chicago, introduced the “Great Books” program, because he was opposed to textbooks V. Student-Centered Philosophies ● More focused on individual needs, contemporary relevance, and preparing students for a changing future. A. Progressivism ● Progressivism - Organizes schools around the concerns, curiosity, and real world experiences of students ○ Pragmatism - Determining if an idea has merit by testing it. ● John Dewey - Taught that people learn best through social interaction in the real world. ○ Laboratory School - Educators, like scientists need a place to test their ideas B. Social Reconstructionism ● Social Reconstructionism - Encourages schools, teachers, and students to focus their studies and energies on alleviating pervasive social inequities and reconstruct society into a new, more just social order ○ George Counts - wrote ‘D are the Schools Build a New Social Order’ where he outlined a more radical and ambitious approach to education ■ This concept was sparked by his experience with the Great Depression ■ He was also a student of Dewey ● Schools is the place for eliminating social problems ● Teachers must remain democratic ● Paulo Freire - believed schools were just another institution perpetuating social inequities while conforming to the dominant group ○ Social Darwinism - “Society is an ingenious ‘sorting’ system. The more talented rise to the top, while those less deserving fall to the bottom both socially, and economically.” ■ Those who have money deserve to, those without deserve not to have it. ■ Poverty is a normal part of life. ○ Praxis - actions based on sound theories and values can make a real difference in the world C. Existentialism ● Existentialism - asserts that the purpose of education is to help children find the meaning and direction in their lives, and it rejects the notion that adults should or could direct meaningful learning for children ○ We must look within ourselves to discover our own purpose and truth ○ Each student decides what and when to learn ○ Teachers must also be in touch with themselves, and work to find their own truths VI. Can Teachers Blend These Five Philosophies? ❏ Must we pick a single philosophy, or can we mix and match? ● Some people like blending philosophies, and others are against it VII. Psychological Influences on Education ● Other forces that impact teaching and learning A. Constructivism ● Constructivism - asserts that knowledge cannot be handed from one person to another (teacher to pupil), but must be constructed by each learner by interpreting and reinterpreting a constant flow of information. ○ Based on the views of Jean Piaget and Liu Vygotsky ○ Teaching is the constant effort to assimilate new information ■ Scaffolding - questions, clues, or suggestions that help a student link prior knowledge to the new information ● Student and teachers constantly challenge their own preconceived notions. B. Behaviorism ● Behaviorism - Derived from the belief that free will is an illusion, and that humans are shaped entirely by their environment ○ Alter someone's environment, and everything else will change. ○ B.F. Skinner - Leading advocate for behaviorism, did much to popularize using positive reinforcement ○ Behavior Modification - extrinsic rewards are gradually lessened as the student acquires and masters the targeted behavior ■ The goal is for the teacher to move to student from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards. VIII. Cultural Influences on Education ● Ethnocentrism - The tendency to view one’s own culture as superior to others and (perhaps worse) to fail to consider other cultures at all. ● Informal Education - A shared educational Responsibility, where children learn through observation, conversation, assisting, and imitation. ● Oral Tradition - Spoken method as primary method for instruction; word problems, proverbs, stories, anecdotes, and rhymes ○ Sometimes to be later written IX. The Three Legendary Figures of Classical Western Philosophies ● Trio of philosophers from ancient Greece ○ Socrates - Synonymous with wisdom/philosophical life. (469-399 B.C.E.) His goal was to help people find truths within their own minds. ■ Socratic Method - Repetitively questioning, disproving, and testing the thoughts of his pupils on questions of “love” and “the good”. ■ He offended many powerful people, was charged for corrupting young minds, and ultimately sentenced to death. ○ Plato - (427-347 B.C.E.) Student of Socrates. Wrote dialogues of Socrates questionings, and Plato’s own insights. After Socrates was killed, Plato left the city out of anger. Later he returned to found the Academy. ■ The human soul is comprised of three parts; intellect, spirit, and appetite. ○ Aristotle - Plato’s student (384-322 B.C.E.) Enrolled in Plato’s Academy from the time he was 18, until he was 38. He later moved to Northern Greece, where he taught Alexander the Great. Afterwards, Aristotle returned to Athens and founded the Lyceum across from Plato’s Academy. ■ Wrote about science, mathematics, and literacy criticism ■ Golden Mean - Virtue lies between courage and foolhardiness X. Basic Philosophical Issues and Concepts A. Metaphysics and Epistemology ● Metaphysics - (What) Deals with the origin and structure of reality ● Epistemology - (How) Examines the nature and origin of human knowledge ○ Materialism - Only the physical actually exists. Fundamentals of the existence of matter. ○ Idealism - The physical realm is but an illusion, matter is only known through the mind. ○ Cartesian Dualism - Created by Rene Descartes, reality is comprised of body and mind. ■ Empiricism - sensory experience is the source of knowledge and reflection of sensory experiences help us interpret the world ■ Rationalism - The power of reasoning and logic, including that which we don’t experience through our senses. B. Logic ● Logic - The branch of Philosophy that deals with reasoning, and its rules ○ Deductive Reasoning - teachers present their students with a general rule, and then help the students to apply and explore it. ○ Inductive Reasoning - Teachers help students to make generalizations after observing occurrences. C. Ethics, Political Philosophy, and Aesthetics ● Ethics - The study of what is “good” or “bad” in behavior, thoughts, and feelings. ● Political Philosophy - Analyzes how past and present societies are arranged and governed, and how we can create better future societies. ● Aesthetics - Probes the nature of beauty. What is it? Are some things more beautiful than others? Etc. - Having a philosophy, whatever that may be, brings purpose and coherence to your work as a teacher.
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