CHEM1212: Chapter 16
CHEM1212: Chapter 16 CHEM1212
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Brittany Ariana Borzillo
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM1212 at University of Georgia taught by Donald Wayne Suggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Freshman Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 16 Acid and Base Definitions Arrhenius o Acid A substance containing hydrogen that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of H+ ions. o Base A substance containing the hydroxide group that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of OH- ions Brønsted-Lowry o Acid A substance that can donate a proton o Base A substance that can accept a proton Lewis o Acid A substance that can accept an electron pair o Base A substance that can donate an electron pair Simple Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases Conjugate acid—base pair o Because the Brønsted–Lowry definitions are based on the donating or accepting a proton, every Brønsted–Lowry acid has a conjugate base, every Brønsted–Lowry base has a conjugate acid, and every Brønsted– Lowry acid–base reaction involves two conjugate acid–base pairs Complex Acids Monoprotic o Only capable of donating/receiving one electron o Brønsted–Lowry Polyprotic o Can donate more than one proton o Diprotic Polyprotic acid that can donate two protons Amphiprotic o Formed when a polyatomic acid loses an electron Autoionization the reaction between two molecules of a chemical substance to produce ions reactant-favored ionization constant for water (Kw) o 10e-14 neutral solution o solution where concentration of [H+]=[OH-] pH and pOH Acid and Base Hydrolysis Equilibria strength of an acid or base depends on concentration and tendency of the acid or base to donate or accept a proton Hydrolysis o general term used to describe the reaction of a substance with water o ionization used to describe the reaction between an acid and water or a base and water o acid dissociation constant indicates the relative strength of a weak acid acids with larger Ka values are stronger acids that ionize to a greater extent in solution than do acids with smaller Ka values o base dissociation constant indicates the relative strength of a weak base Strong Acids and Bases Acid-Base Properties of Salts ionization of salts o If both the cation and anion are neutral, the salt is neutral o If only one ion is neutral, the other ion controls the acid–base nature of the salt o If either the cation or anion is acidic and the other is neutral, the solution is acidic o If either the cation or anion is basic and the other is neutral, the solution is basic o If neither ion is neutral, the acid–base nature of the salt can be determined by comparing the relative values of Ka and Kb for the ions. In this situation, normally the cation is acidic and the anion is basic If Ka(cation) > Kb(anion), then the solution is mildly acidic If Kb(anion) > Ka(cation), then the solution is mildly basic
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