New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CIS 140 Week 6

by: Alexis Mitchnick

CIS 140 Week 6 CIS 140

Alexis Mitchnick

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Visual development in infants, nature vs. nurture experiments for visual abilities
Intro to Cognitive Science
David Hoyt Brainard, Lyle H Ungar
Class Notes
cognitive, Vision, nature vs nurture
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Cognitive Science

Popular in Cognitive Science

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Mitchnick on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 140 at University of Pennsylvania taught by David Hoyt Brainard, Lyle H Ungar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cognitive Science in Cognitive Science at University of Pennsylvania.


Reviews for CIS 140 Week 6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/07/16
Tuesday, October 4, 2016 CIS 140 Week 6 Perception: plasticity and development - Studying perceptual development in infants: - difficulty because cannot communicate with them, they cannot tell you what they're perceiving - Study: can babies perceive depth? put baby on solid side of visual cliff, create cliff (with piece of safety glass over cliff).. see if baby crawls to mom on other side of cliff - Inferential problems (can see depth, but goes anyway): can see the depth, but maybe don't know it’s a bad idea, can perceive the glass on top of the cliff so they know it’s okay, persuasive factor of the mom - Other problems (can’t see depth, but still doesn't go): glass felt weird, were interested in something else on solid side of cliff - Forced Choice Looking experiment: can baby see the difference between the stripes, and plain grey? (do the stripes blur?) In each trial, stripes either on the right or the left — if an observer, by looking at the baby and observing if the baby is looking to the left or the right, can tell which side the stripes are on, then we can conclude the baby can see the stripes - Results: Baby at 6 months — can reliably tell (75% baseline) which side stripes are on when stripes are at roughly 10 min width… graph shows increasing acuity (in percent) vs. stripe width (in mins), create lines for babies at different ages (in moths) - Potential problems with data: person holding the baby providing cues consciously or subconsciously (to correct: holder can wear a blindfold), if baby can see the stripes, but is too young to control where it wants to look, baby isn't interested enough in stripes to look at them (can see them, just doesn't care to look), too fussy to participate - Different experiment: depth perception for baby, same idea where observer tells where baby is looking to see if baby can see depth target… in this experiment, baby must wear “3D glasses” and mother wears nothing, so mother cannot see to give cues 1 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 - Additional Study: can baby tell difference between two visual stimuli? (not just a stimulus and a blank) - Habituation — if you show the same stimulus over and over again, habituation will occur - Dishabituation — if baby can tell that the stimulus has changed, dishabituation will occur - Sticks example: One large rod behind a box moves back and forth, if box is removed and it turns out to be two diff. sticks, dishabituation.. if it remains one stick, habituation will continue - Infant Visual Abilities: tremendous development over 0-6 months… at ~3 months develop color and size constancy, at 0 months 20/500 vision (very blurry) —> at 6 months 20/40 vision (on the low end of normal adult vision) - Summary of infant perception studies: habituation paradigms and forced choice looking - Nature vs. Nurture: Is the gradual development of perceptual abilities due to nature, nurture, or a combination of the two? — both matter, it is not one versus the other, how do genes and the environment interact? - Do we need to learn to perceive? - William Molyneux letter to Locke: a blind man can learn what a cube and sphere feel like, but if they were set on a table and he could magically see, would he be able to tell which is the cube and which is the sphere? WM says no, he has learned how to touch, but not how things that affect his touch would look - Sidenote — John Locke: he was an empiricist - Gregory’s Patient: WM’s hypothetical, with today’s tech., happened in real life: - from the touch of block letters, he had learned the shapes of letters… he was able to then tell which letter was which when he got his sight (WM was wrong) - ability to judge depth was impaired when he got his vision back, never became fully normal (ex. crossing the street, could not correctly observe distance and velocity of cars) - had difficulty seeing and observing more subtle things — like the front of a bus, that he never learned through touch 2 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 - can see object better after he feels it - Patient MM: - fun fact: world champion blind downhill skier - does not see certain depth illusions, perspective, etc. - fMRI studies: showed MM had a lot of trouble recognizing faces, recognizing and identifying shapes - MM 2003, MM 2013, Normal: MM has a lot of trouble naming objects after seeing them, has gotten better at 2D shapes, 3D shapes, 3D perception - Can conclude from these studies: nature provides some aspects of developing perception (like recognizing the block letters), completely normal vision requires nurture as well - Project Prakash: if you do the same surgery as SB and MM sooner in life, like SRD (surgery at 12), can later have completely normal vision - Summary: some vision is possible without visual experience, completely normal vision requires visual experience - Goggles Demo: first time, toss is very off; after a few more trials, can correct the offset and toss straight to target - when goggles are taken back off: miss in opposite direction (you adapted to the goggles, so your first throw, you continue to throw with same technique as goggles on, causes you to miss in opposite direction) - constant calibration going on - after adaptation to tossing with one hand, what happens when subject switches tossing hand: will miss as if the adaptation hadn't happened - L/R reversing goggles, more extreme change (than original goggles, which was only a small shift): subject wore the goggles for two weeks - subjects were able to adapt and perform the task in shorter and shorter time as time wearing the goggles increase - Brain Adaptation: changes in parietal cortex.. recalibrated based on new vision in goggles - Ocular Dominance Columns: role of experience (nature vs. nurture in animals) 3 Tuesday, October 4, 2016 - if you raise the animal with one eye closed, all the neurons in the cortex will respond to the vision in one eye (whereas with both eyes, it will be distributed as we learned in past lectures) - how this relates to humans: developmental plasticity early in life is purposeful in that if you are born with visual impairment in one eye, can use entire cortex for the one eye rather than half - Summary: normal development of visual cortex requires normal experience, there is a ‘critical period’ with plasticity in development of cortex 4


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.