Learning Notes 10.3 - 10.7
Learning Notes 10.3 - 10.7 PSH 322
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Cornell on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSH 322 at SUNY College at Brockport taught by Dr. Forzano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Learning in Psychology at SUNY College at Brockport.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Learning 10.3.2016 1. Another example of classical conditioning a. A child is bit by a dog b. Child gets conditioned to be afraid of dogs 2. Categories of Classical Conditioning a. Based on whether the US is pleasant or unpleasant: i. Appetitive conditioning ii. Aversive conditioning b. Based on whether the US is presented or absent i. Excitatory conditioning ii. Inhibitory conditioning 3. Appetitive Conditioning a. The US is an even that is usually considered pleasant and that an organism seeks out b. Examples: i. Food, water, sexual stimuli 4. Aversive Conditioning a. The US is an even that is usually considered unpleasant and that an organism usually avoids b. Examples i. Electric shock, painful bit, unpleasant odor c. Usually can occur quickly and requires only a few pairings to be conditioned d. Aversive conditioning accounts for many of our fears, anxieties and phobias. e. Measuring fear i. Conditioned suppression ii. Suppression ratio 1. Lower ratio means less responding which means greater suppression which means more fear iii. Level of fear can be measured by the extent to which behavior stops when fear invoking stimuli are present and behaviors resume when the stimuli are not present 5. Excitatory conditioning a. Conditioning in which the NS is associated with the presentation of a US b. The excitatory CS is usually labeled as CS+ c. Example: i. Metronome is associated with the presentation of food ii. The dog associated with the painful bite 6. Inhibitory conditioning a. The NS is associated with the absence or removal of the US b. The inhibitory CS is labeled CS- c. The CS comes to inhibit the occurrence of a response – that is, the response is less likely to occur when that stimulus is present Learning 10.5.2016 1. Temporal arrangement of stimuli a. There are several ways to temporally arrange the presentation of the NS and the US i. Delayed conditioning 1. Short delayed and long delayed ii. Trace conditioning iii. Simultaneous conditioning iv. Backward conditioning 2. Delayed condition a. The onset of the NS precedes the onset of the US and the two stimuli also overlap b. The best arrangement for condition, especially when the Interstimulus interval (ISI) is relatively short c. The ISI is the time between the onset of the NS and the onset of the US 3. Trace conditioning a. The onset and offset of the neutral stimulus precedes the onset of the unconditioned stimulus b. The NS occurs before the US and the two stimuli do not overlap c. The organism has to “remember” the occurrence of the tone (“memory trace”) to be able to associate the NS and the US 4. Simultaneous condition a. The onset of the NS and the onset of the US are simultaneous 5. Backward conditioning a. The US is present first then the NS is presented later 6. Basic phenomenon a. Acquisition b. Extinction c. Spontaneous recovery d. Disinhibition e. Generalization f. Discrimination 7. Acquisition a. The process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of the NS and US b. It proceeds rapidly during early conditioning trials, the gradually levels off. c. The asymptote is the maximum amount of condition that can take place in a particular situation 8. What influences the speed and asymptote of acquisition? a. The intensity of the US b. Intensity of the neutral stimulus 9. Extinction a. The process i. A conditioned response is weakened or eliminated when the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the US b. The procedure i. The repeated presentation of the CS in the absence of the US 10.What happens to the CR a. It has decreased in strength. b. It has not been completely eliminated c. It can be reacquired quite rapidly when the CS (or NS) is again pared with the US 11.Spontaneous Recovery a. The reappearance of a CR following a rest period after extinction b. An extinguished response can reappear quite quickly when the CS (or NS) is again paired with the US c. Each time the response recovers it is somewhat weaker and is extinguished more quickly than before Learning 10.7.2016 1. Learning something new a. Extinction is not simply a process of unlearning the conditioning b. Extinction involves learning something new c. The new conditioning inhibits the occurrence of the CR in the presence of the CS 2. Disinhibition a. The sudden recovery of a response during and extinction procedure when a novel stimulus is introduced b. Similar to dishabituation except that it is a new stimulus that is being presented 3. Stimulus generalization a. The tendency for the conditioned response to occur in the presence of a stimulus that it similar to the CS b. The more similar the stimulus is to the original CS, the stronger the response c. It is an important evolutionary adaptation 4. Stimulus discrimination a. The tendency for a response to be elicited more by one stimulus than another Learning 10.7.2016 1. Taste aversion conditioning 2. Introduction a. Most well researched example/application of classical conditioning i. Common phenomenon ii. Results of study 1. Very few aversions to bland foods 3. Taste aversion conditioning a. A form of classical conditioning in which a food item that has been paired with a gastrointestinal illness becomes a conditioned stimulus