ANTH 1030 - The New World
ANTH 1030 - The New World ANTH 1030-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1030-001 at University of Utah taught by Brian Codding in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see World Prehistory: Introduction in ANTH at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
ANTH 1030 – The New World Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Broken Mammoth, Mead, and Swan Point sites (pg. 149) First settlement in Alaska Stratified occupation layers with stone tools and animal bones Earliest occupation to about 11,700 B.C. "Northern Paleo-Indian" traditions Dry Creek I (pg. 149) First settlement in Alaska 11,500 B.C. Cobble and flake tools Broken blades, think bifacial knives, and points Dry Creek II 8,700 B.C. Microblades and other artifacts associated with such technology "Northern Paleo-Indian" traditions Walker Road (pg. 149) First settlement in Alaska 11,400-11,100 B.C. Cultural occupation, stratigraphic position, and age are similar to Dry Creek I. Small bifacial points and scrappers No microblades "Northern Paleo-Indian" traditions Note: Biological anthropologist Christy Turner points out that ancient Americans display fewer variations in their dental morphology than do eastern Asians. Sinodonty - a pattern of dental features that includes incisor shoveling, single-tooted upper first premolars, triple-rooted lower first molars, and other attributes. Occurs only in northern Asia and the Americas. North America (pg. 153) Meadowcroft (13,000-14,000? B.C.) Debra L. Friedkin site (11,100-10,800 B.C.) Cactus Hill (14,600-13,000 B.C.) Paisley 5 Mile Point (10,300 B.C.) Central and South America (pg. 153) Monte Verde (11,800-12,000 B.C.) Major Hypotheses to explain the outcome of Neanderthal-Modern Humans Climate Acculturation Introgression Competitive exclusion Other Hypotheses Disease Warfare Indirect replacement (?) Denisovans Altai Mountains, Siberia (30-48 kya) Tip of pinky bone Competitive Exclusion Hypothesis Did differences in diet and demography allow modern humans to out- compete Neanderthals? Specialists (Neanderthals) - adapted to narrow diets; population size depends on abundance of a few resources. Generalists (modern humans) - adapted to broad diets; population size expands with diet. Increase in population densities, intensive diets, and technological investment Isotope: an element with an additional neutron. Stable isotope: ratio of heavier to lighter isotope Do not decay Note: variation in stable carbon isotopes can provide insight into an organism's diet. Note: variation in nitrogen isotopes can inform you of the amount of meat an organism eats, or how high up they are on the food chain. Upper Paleolithic Chronologies Aurignacian Anatomically modern Survived to "old age" (50s?) despite infection (cared for?) Haplogroup N? Descendants… Basque? Gravettian Soultrean Magdalenian Types of Upper Paleolithic Sites in Siberia Approximately 20 sites total between (approx. 30-40 kya) Ephemeral Cave Sites (few) Small Open-air Sites (few) Large Open-air sites situated on terraces above flood planes (most, e.g., Tolbaga) Mal'ta, Central Siberia (26-20 kya) Four-year old found in the 1920s Associated with diverse grave goods, including Venus and class Baikal bird figurines mtDNA and Y-chromosome DNA suggest early Western Eurasians and Native American linkages Suggests 14-38% shared ancestry with Native Americans Last Pleistocene - Early Holocene Climate LGM = last glacial maximum YD = younger dryous (cold snap)
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