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PSC 204 - Week 7

by: Josie Rykhus

PSC 204 - Week 7 PSC 204

Josie Rykhus
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

notes over NATO Expansion and the Cold War 2.0 documentary
International Relations
Mr. Adrian Rickert
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josie Rykhus on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 204 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mr. Adrian Rickert in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
I. Nato Expansion (1949 - present) a. Background i. Created in 1949 as a security alliance to deter a Soviet invasion of W. Europe ii. Originally had 12 members 1. US, Canada, W. Europe 2. Now (2016) has 28 members b. Warsaw Pact (1955) i. Counterpart to defend against a NATO attack ii. Soviet Union and its allies c. Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) i. Ensuing collapse of Communist regimes in eastern Europe (1990) ii. US made assurances to Soviet Union that NATO wouldn’t expand East 1. CONDITION: USSR lets all of Germany join NATO 2. New Policy (Clinton Administration): Warsaw Pact countries are allowed to join NATO a.Almost all of the Warsaw countries join NATO and NATO expands eastward i. Russia gets tired of it 1. NATO expansion is a security threat 2. Feels that US broke its promise not to expand a.Thinks it is an attempt to Westernize states formerly under Russian/Soviet influence d. 2008 (Putin) → Russia begins to use force to counter these moves i. Putin appeals to Russian nationalism ii. Georgia 1.1994 → Georgia joined NATO-led Partnership for Peace a. Program to build trust between NATO states and former Soviet states 2.2003 → pro-Western Mikhail Saakashvili takes power after Rose Revolution 3.April 2008 → NATO pledges that Georgia will join NATO 4.Aug. 2008 → fighting between Georgian forces and South Ossetian Rebels a. Georgian troops fire on Russian peacekeepers i. Probably because Saakashvili thought that NATO would back him up b. Russia invades northern portion of Georgia and quickly wipes out Georgian army c. NATO decides not to go to war over Georgia e. Ukraine i. Nov. 2013 → President Yanukovych distanced himself from previous European Union 1.Moving closer to Russia a. Eastern Ukraine is pro-Russia, Western Ukraine is pro-European Union 2. Jan./Feb. 2014 → Protesters in Kiev a. Police begin shooting protesters b. 98 dead, 15,000 hurt 3. Feb. 22, 2014 → Parliament ousts Yanukovych and votes in Petro Poroshenko 4. 2013-14 → Russian forces seize Crimean Peninsula a. Gives them a naval base on the Black Sea i. Russian Black Sea Fleet b. After a vote, Russia annexed the peninsula i. Voted on March 16 1. Annexed on March 18, 2014 ii. 96% vote to join Russia c. Crimean Peninsula i. Annexed by Russia in 1783 ii. Becomes part of Soviet Union in 1921 iii. Khrushchev gave Crimea to Ukraine in 1954 f. Recent Examples i. April 2016 → Russian fighter jets buzzed US navy ships operating in Baltic Sea ii. May 2016 → US deployed anti-ballistic missiles to Poland and Romania 1. Operated by NATO and capable of shooting down Russian nuclear missiles 2. Russia claims this threatens their security 3. US says missiles are defense against Iran, not Russia a.This is not true iii. US hasn’t slowed nuclear stockpiling g. A New Cold War? i. Nov. 2014 → Gorbachev claims “West, in particular the US, has succumbed to ‘triumphalism’ after the collapse of the USSR” ii. There is common interest with Russia – shouldn’t be fighting with them 1. Stopping ISIS and the spread of radical Islam II. Documentary - Cold War 2.0 a. Original Cold War i. 1980s - most politically intense era of the Cold War ii. Iron Curtain 1. Divide between Warsaw Pact states and NATO states 2. Information and transportation between the two was nearly impossible iii. MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) 1. If one side launches a strike the other will → global destruction iv. Proxy Wars 1. The Congo, Vietnam, Nicaragua v. Berlin Wall falls b. June 2015 i. Doomsday clock has been set forward 1. Second closest we have ever been to Armageddon ii. Russian troops on Ukrainian border are highest they have ever been c. The Kremlin (Russia) i. Russia says war is already beginning 1. Because of: Ukraine, NATO, economic sanctions, less available oil ii. Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov 1. Russia sees Ukraine as a buffer state between itself and the West a. Containment strategy iii. Ukraine is demographically and politically split between east and west 1. Russia vs. NATO is tearing the country apart 2. Yanukovich switched talks with the West to closer relationships with Russia a. He was ousted b. Putin annexed Crimea i. Now separatist controlled territory c. Civil war breaks out 3. Separatist side is cut off from Ukrainian side a. More people die of hunger than from the war b. Many humanitarian aid trucks are trying to get into the separatist area i. Ukraine stops these trucks and uses the food to feed Ukraine c. Russia won’t feed them i. This would indicate that Russia is in fact occupying the territory 1. Putin doesn’t want international actors attacking because of an occupation d. United States i. US and Russia own over 90% of all nuclear weapons ii. President Obama 1. Ordinary Russians aren’t getting all information because of the state-run media a. No check on what Putin is doing b. RT Studios → Russian media station based in the United States iii. Malaysian Airlines flight 1. Information points to Russian made weapons 2. Russia completely denies this e. NATO i. Bombing of Kosovo → this is where US tensions with Russia turned 1. US and NATO allies act without agreement from UN a. They knew Russia would deny the action ii. An attack against one NATO member is attack against them all iii. Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) 1. Many are now NATO members but also border Russia 2. President of Lithuania a. Believes Russia could attack NATO states b. Already seeing threats: military exercises taking place on their border 3. US troops are on the ground in the Baltic States iv. Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Dmitry Rogozin 1. Used to be Russian ambassador to NATO a. Claims it is an “outdated organization” b. NATO promised not to expand eastward, but they did 2. Russia’s biggest beef with NATO: a. NATO has planned deployment of missile defense systems into Eastern Europe


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