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IT 100 Notes for 10/4-10/6

by: Riley Ringler

IT 100 Notes for 10/4-10/6 IT 100

Riley Ringler
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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About this Document

These notes cover what is going to be on Exam #2
Introduction to Computing and Application
Michael Manderfeld
Class Notes
information technology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Riley Ringler on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to IT 100 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Michael Manderfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Computing and Application in Engineering and Tech at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
IT 100  (10/4­10/6) A. Storage & Databases a. Primary Storage (temporary storage)­loses content when computer loses power. i. Volatile Storage ii. Temporary  iii. Refers to random access memory (RAM) b. Secondary Storage (permanent storage)­ permanently saves info for future use. i. Nonvolatile storage­ stores programs & data as opposed to temporary  RAM. ii. Characteristics 1. Media or medium­ what holds data 2. Capacity­ amount of storage held 3. Storage devices­ hardware that reads data 4. Access speed­ measures amount of time required by storage  devices to retrieve data and programs. iii. Writing­ process of saving info to the secondary storage device. iv. Reading­ process of accessing info from secondary storage device. B. Hard Disks ­ save files by altering magnetic charges of disk’s surface to represent 1’s &  0’s. i. Store and organize files using tracks,  sectors, and cylinders.  ii. Head crash­ occurs when read/write head makes contact with surface (like a human hair touching the surface) b. Types of hard disks i. Internal­ located inside system unit 1. Store operating system, programs, data. ii. External­ removable and are used to complement an internal hard disk. 1. Connect to USB or thunderbolt. c. Performance Enhancements i. Disk caching­ uses cache (collection of like items) & anticipates data  needs. ii. Redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID) 1. Linked low cost hard disk drives. 2. Often used by internet servers and big organizations. iii. File compression­ reduces file size iv. File decompression­ expands files C. Optical Discs i. Three types: 1. Compact Disc (capacity 700 MB) a. Three types i. Read only (CD­ROM) 1. Commercial music CD 2. Can’t be written on or erased 3. Distribute large databases ii. Write Once (CD­R)­ used to archive data or to  record music downloaded from internet. iii. Rewriteable (CD­RW) 1. Erasable 2. Changeable 3. Create & edit multimedia presentations. 2. Digital Versatile Disc (DVDs) (capacity 4.7 GB on one side) a. Newer format than CDs b. Has replaced CD as the standard optical disc c. Three types (Same as CDs: read only, write once,  rewriteable) 3. Blu­Ray (BDs) a. Next generation of optical disc for recording high­def  video. b. Three Types (same as CDs & DVDs) D. Solid State Storage a. Solid State Storage Drives (SSDs)­ faster, more durable (no moving parts) than  hard drives (Example Ipad) i. Require less power ii. Contain solid state memory instead of magnetic disk to store data b. Flash Memory Cards (used in digital cameras, IPod, laptops, smartphones, GPS)­  one type of solid state device. c. USB Drives (Flash Drives)­ connect to USB port, capacity of 1 GB­ 256 GB. E. Cloud Computing ­ the internet provides cloud storage (online storage such as Google  Docs) i. Application provided as a service rather than a product. ii. Can be accessed from any internet ready device. iii. Any deice with little storage, memory, or processing power (mobile  phones) can run the same application as a desktop computer. b. Benefits i. Maintenance­ disk defragmentation, backups, encryption, & security.  ii .     Hardware updates iii. File Sharing & Collaboration­ users can share & communicate with  anywhere there is internet connection. c. Disadvantages i. Access Speed­ transfer rate dependent upon internet connection. ii. File Security­ may not be effective as your personal file security. F. Mass Storage Devices ­ designed to meet the demands for a tremendous amount of  mass storage. a. File Servers­ dedicated computer with very large storage capacities providing user access to fast storage & data retrieval. b. Network Attached Storage­ Similar to file server but less expensive. c. RAID Systems­ larger versions of the specialized devices. d. Organizational Cloud Storage­ high speed internet connection to a dedicated  remote organizational cloud storage server. e. Storage Area Network (SAN)­ recent mass storage development & provides disk  space. G. Data ­ facts or observations about people, places, things, & events.  Audio, music,  photos, & Video. a. Two ways to view data i. Physical view­ actual format & location (usually only very specialized  computer professionals use physical view). ii. Logical view­ focuses on the meaning & content of the data (end users &  computer professionals use logical view). b. Data Organization i. Logical View­ organized info groups or categories 1. Character­ basic logical data element (a single letter, number, or  special character like punctuation) 2. Field­ a group of related characters (last names).  A data field  represents an attribute (description or character) of a person, place,  thing, or object. 3. Record­ collection of related fields. 4. Table­ collection of related records. 5. Database­ integrated collection of logically related tables ii. Primary Key/Key Field­ unique identifier to help locate data based on  specific requests. A. Databases ­ a structured set of data held in a computer, especially one that is accessible  in various ways. i. Keeps info organized so a computer program can quickly select pieces of  data (think electronic filing system). b. Lists­ sufficient only for simple tasks (like a grocery list) i. Complex info lists are no longer efficient because of 1. Data redundancy­ data duplicated between two lists. 2. Data inconsistency­ overlooking one or more lists, or one or more  rows in the same list. 3. Duplicate data­ data entered twice 4. Sorting issues­ reorganizing (or sorting) multiple lists can be labor  intensive.  5 .     Incomplete data c. Advantages of Databases i. Store & retrieve large quantities of info ii. Enable info sharing iii. Provide data centralization iv. Promote data integrity v. Allow for flexible use of date d. Database Functions i. Access­ look up ii. Manage­ keep organized iii. Update­ keep current/correct iv. Group­ sort by categories v. Summarize­ create reports e. Database stores i. Able to store characters (letters, or numbers, sounds, images, videos, etc.) ii. Physically stores data on storage media within a computer or server. iii. Limit to storage capacity. f. Levels of Data in Database i. Character (letter, number, symbol)­ made of bytes, which are groups of 8  Database= filing cabinet bits. Character= letters on fileii. Field­ composed of one or more characters. Field= individual name of file folder 1. Identified by its field name, which specifies the type of data to  Record= stuff in the file enter. iii. Record­ Includes a group of related fields. 1. Contained in tables or data files, has a primary key. g. Relationships of Stored Data i. Relational databases organize data into tables based on logical groupings. ii. Relationships are links between tables with related data. iii. Common field(s) need to exist between tables (the fields do not have to  have same field name as long as they contain same data). h. Database Management Systems (DBMS) i. Application Software­ designed to capture & analyze data. ii. Four main operations of DBMS 1. Creating databases & entering data 2. Viewing (or browsing) & sorting data 3. Extracting (or querying) data 4. Outputting data


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