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BIO Week 7

by: Kaitlyn Meinzer

BIO Week 7 BIOS 1000

Kaitlyn Meinzer

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Animal Diversity On test 2
Animal Diversity
Patrick Hassett
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Meinzer on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1000 at Ohio University taught by Patrick Hassett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Week 7 • The Deep Sea ◦ 50% of earths surface lies below 2 km ocean depths ◦ Deep sea bed covers 270 million km2 ◦ We have quantitatively sampled about 500 m2 of this ◦ Challenges for life in the deep sea ‣ Stresses • Cold temperatures (though constant) • High pressure • Very low or no light • Low food ability (with few exceptions) • Mesopelagic Zone ‣ The lower limits of the sunlit zone ‣ 200m-1000m ‣ High species diversity ‣ Low, but detachable light ‣ Many animals migrate to surface at night ‣ Countershading by bioluminescence is common ‣ Countershading: appear dark from above, light from below ◦ Lanternfish ‣ Most common fish in the ocean, lives in mesopelagic zone ‣ May account for over half deep sea fish biomass (estimated at roughly 1 billion tons) ◦ Mesopelagic Fish Biomass ‣ Recent study estimated that the biomass of mesopelagic fish may be 10x higher than thought ‣ That would mean there are far more of these small fish than all other fish in the world combined (estimated at 1-2 billion tons) ◦ Bioluminescent ‣ Product of light by living organism ‣ Common in ocean, occurs in wide ranges of animals ‣ May be used for defense(camouflage, distraction), offense(prey attraction), as well as communication(mating) ‣ For illumination: A dragonfish can produce a beam of red light • Many deep sea animals are red ‣ Red color common • Red pigmentation is common in midwater animals • Red light absorbed rapidly • Most bioluminescent is blue-green ‣ Color mismatch • Bioluminescent color slightly different than natural light • Predators can respond by having eyes sensitive to bioluminescent spectrum ◦ Bioluminescent Countershading ‣ Breaks up pattern of animal when seen against weak surface light ‣ Intensity can match background • The Deep Zones ‣ No light ‣ Abyssal plain, 4,000-6,000 m depth ‣ Covers 40% of ocean floor ‣ Ocean trenches can extend to 11,000 m deep ‣ Extreme pressure, little food, relatively few species ◦ Food and energy ‣ In most of the deep sea these is little food ‣ Animals must conserve energy, many move little and have weak muscles ‣ Weak bones and muscles reduce density, make floating easier ‣ Many deep sea squid are also weakly muscled ◦ Red color common ‣ Red pigmentation is common in midwater animals, where there is some light ‣ Appear black due to rapid absorption of red light ◦ Deepest living animals ‣ Red pigmentation is uncommon in deepest dwelling animals,many lack any kind of pigmentation ‣ Little bioluminescence in these animals ‣ Deep ocean bottom mostly covered in fine mud ‣ Few suspension feeders ‣ Mostly sediment feeders and scavengers ◦ Gigantism ‣ Common in deep, cold waters ‣ Causes of gigantism • Seen in deep-sea and polar oceans • Cause is unknown • Temperature effect? • Slow growth, longer life span, delayer maturity may play a role ◦ Deep-sea ‣ Cold water(2-4 C), little food, leads to slow metabolism ‣ Animals often long-lived (100 years for deep sea clam; some take 25-30 years to reach sexual maturity) ‣ Deep-sea colonies measured at 500-1000 years ◦ Bottom Fish ‣ Excellent sense of smell ‣ Can detect scent of food from long distances ‣ Many bottom fish roam widely, have stronger bones and muscles ‣ Living on bottom, higher dusty not a problem ◦ Biodiversity in the deep sea ‣ Originally thought to be barren, deep sea diversity (# of species) is actually high ‣ In some cases biodiversity rivals rainforest ‣ Exceptions are deep-sea trenches, which ave few species ‣ Calculating Biodiversity • In low diversity areas you can take many samples and you will find the same species • In deep oceans, al,most every sample yields new species • Unusual Deep-Sea Communities ◦ Vent Communities ‣ Hydrothermal or 'hot' vents ‣ Methane seeps or 'cold' vents ‣ Whale falls ‣ (Mostly along mid-ocean ridges and trenches) • Hydrothermal or Hot Vents ‣ Make use of hydrogen sulfide emitted by vents, such as this 'black smoker' ‣ 350C ◦ Vent Worm ‣ Note red color of plume: hemoglobin which gives our own blood its red color ‣ Plume acts like a gill, absorbing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide (for bacteria) and oxygen (for worm) ‣ Heart pumps blood to symbiotic bacteria in feeding body ‣ There is a large range of vent worms ◦ Pompeii Worm ‣ Can withstand temperatures of 80 C (almost 180 F) ‣ Has coast of bacteria growing on back ◦ Vent Clams ‣ Dense congregations of clams ‣ Clams host symbionts too ‣ Bacteria produce sulphur as byproduct, can give shells yellow color ◦ Other Vent Species ‣ Yeti Crabs ‣ Sea anemone ◦ Vent Productivity ‣ In addition to symbiosis, primary production also comes from fields of bacteria growing on rocks ◦ Vent Shrimp ‣ found at Atlantic vents ‣ 'Farm' chemosynthetic bacteria under shell • Methane seeps or cold seeps ‣ Arise where methane seeps through ocean floor ‣ Sometimes brine pool can be observed on bottom • methane is usually trapped under layer of brine within undersea rock formations ‣ Bacteria utilize methane as energy source, forming base of community similar to hot vent community ‣ Methane and Hydrogen Sulfide provide energy source for cold-seep community ◦ Cold-Seep Animals ‣ Vent worms also occur around other types of vents, such as cold seeps or methane ‣ Mussels ‣ Tube worms that have roots that absorb sulfide • Whale Falls ◦ Whale carcasses on ocean bottom ‣ Provide another habitat where chemosynthesis can occur ‣ Provide unique environment on ocean bottom ◦ Whale Falls ‣ Too large to be scavenged before sinking to bottom ‣ Initially fed on by hagfish, shark and others ‣ Bacterial decomposers create anoxic conditions, particularly inside bones (in the marrow) ‣ This produces hydrogen sulfide, similar to vents, so there are many species in common ‣ Whale fall communities have many of the same species as vent communities ‣ Can provide food source for decades in deep sea ‣ May be carcasses every 5-10 miles in the deep sea


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