Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes FSHN 300
Popular in Food Principles and Applications
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brie on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSHN 300 at Colorado State University taught by Eric Stanley Milholland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Food Principles and Applications in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
FSHN300 Chapter 10: Milk Common Forms of Milk Milk-liquid Cheese Ice Cream Yogurt Sour Cream Butter Less Common Milk Products Bread Cereal Cookies Cakes Very Uncommon Milk Products Beer Sports Bar Clothes Background on Milk Used as food source for thousands of years Provides a complete protein source, along with Vitamins A + D o Provides some B-Vitamins A prominent source of calcium 80% of calcium ingested by Americans is through dairy products Composition of Milk Lactose: Milk Sugar Lactic Acid: Metabolized lactose Lactose Intolerance o Deficiency in lactase o Lactase: Enzyme used to digest lactose Protein o Casein About 80% of total protein o Whey About 18% of total protein o 8oz. cup of milk = approx.. 8 grams of protein 2 servings of milk/ milk products provide almost ½ the recommended daily amount for women and about 1/3 for men Fat o Called either “milk” fat or “butter” fat o Important for mouthfeel, stability, and flavor o 8 oz. glass has between 0-8 grams of fat o Contains some cholesterol Vitamins o A and D o Fortification: By Vitamin and Grade Whole is not required, but most still fortify anyway Vitamin A: Required in 2% and nonfat milks Vitamin D: Not required in 2% or nonfat milks, but almost all do this anyways o Contains many of the B vitamins (B1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 12) B vitamins (riboflavin) susceptible to degradation in sunlight Most milk is in opaque containers to prevent degradation Minerals o Calcium 8 oz. cup = 300 mg. of calcium Almost 1/3 of the recommended daily intake for calcium Food Additives o Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) o Recombinant Bovine (rBST) o Dairy cattle can’t be given steroids Grading Milk is graded on bacterial content Grading done by USA Voluntary Pasteurization Named for Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) o Known for heating a liquid to destroy microorganisms o Also isolated yeast and bacteria o Germ Theory of Disease: Pasteur claimed that airborne microorganisms can make people sick Ultrapasteurization: Hotter than pasteurization Ultra-High Temperature Processing (Sterilizing): Hotter than ultrapasteurization Required for all milk that crosses state lines Homogenization Homogeneous: Uniform throughout Process that prevents the fat and water from separating Mechanical Process: Breaks up the fat into minute particles Types of Milk Fresh, Fluid Cow’s Milk o Whole milk: 3.25% milk fat At least 8.25% MSNF (milk solids- non-fat) o Reduced-Fat and Low-Fat Milk : 2% or 1% milk fat o Fat-Free or non-fat milk: No more than 0.5% milk fat Fresh fluid milk from other animals o Goat o Sheep o Camel o Llama Flavored Fluid Milk o Chocolate Milk o Eggnog Carbonated Milk o An alternative to soft drinks Muscle Milk Ultrahigh-Temperature Milk (UHT milk) o Doesn’t need to be refrigerated until opened Nutritionally altered fluid milk o Imitation milk o Low-sodium milk o Filled milk o Reduced-lactose milk Plant-Based Milk o Almond Milk o Soy Milk o Rice Milk Canned fluid milks o Whole Milk o Evaporated Milk o Sweetened Condensed fortMilk Dry Milk o Nonfat dried Milk Shelf stable Cheaper Designed as a substitution o Instant Milk Intended to turn into liquid milk Creams and substitutes o Cream o Cream substiutes Cultured Milk o Safe microorganisms added to milk o Buttermilk Substitute by adding 1 Tbsp. of white vinegar or lemon juice to 1 cup milk o Acidophilus Milk Lactose-Free o Kefir o Sour Cream Yogurt Two types of bacteria added to milk Fermentation occurs Leaving “active” cultures Probiotics in Yogurts o Bacteria that have a beneficial effect on health o Ex: Activia Yogurt by Dannon Milk Products in Food Preparation The flavor of milk is bland and slightly sweet o Exposure to heat, sunlight, metal and cow’s diet can affect flavor Coagulation can be caused by: o Heat: “Skin” or Film” when heating milk o Acid: To help prevent, add the acid to the milk base o Enzymes: Rennin- The cottage cheese and ice cream o Salt Whipped Milk Products Fat Content: Higher is more stable o More Fat = More stable Temperature: Cooler is more stable o Colder = More the fat globules stay in shape Ex: Cutting butter when warm vs. cold Sugar: Can increase stability o Water will bind o Add slowly at end or it will make an unstable foam Won’t allow for enough air to get in Age: Older is more stable o As it ages, it gets more acidic which helps with stability Whipping Time: Too much reduces stability Whipped Cream o Expands to 2-3 times the volume when whipped o Higher fat content leads to more stable whipped cream o Refrigerate cream for at least 2 hours before whipping o Add sugar gradually, near end of whipping Whipped Evaporated Milk o Expands to 2-3 times volume when whipped o Not as stable or flavorful as whipped cream Whipped Nonfat Dried Milk o Lower in kcalories than whipped cream o Expands to up to 6 times volume when whipped o Not as stable as whipped cream Storage of Milk Products Refrigerate o All fluid milk products except unopened UHT milk and some canned milks Dry milk should be stored slightly below room temperature iClicker Questions iCLicker: According to the National Dairy Council, what is the standard for fat- free and nonfat milk? A: There is a maximum of 0.5% fat iCLicker: Which of the following best describes the USDA grading guidelines for liquid milk? A: Grading is voluntary iClicker: Which of these two samples has been homogenized? A: The image with a more uniform pattern IClicker: Which of the following affects the stabilization of whipped milk products? A: Fat content, Temperature of the Cream, Sugar Content, and Length of the Whipping Time
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