BIOL1107: Anaerobic Cell Respiration
BIOL1107: Anaerobic Cell Respiration BIOL 1107
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Brittany Ariana Borzillo
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Norris A. Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Anaerobic Cell Respiration Fermentation Process using an organic molecule to regenerate NAD+ from NADH Anaerobic Respiration o Used by prokaryotes Bacteria Archea o Insufficient oxygen o Often use sulfate Sulfate is reduced to hydrogen sulfide to regenerate NAD+ from NADH o Lactic Acid Fermentation Used by animals and certain bacteria Sore muscles contain high levels of lactic acid Insufficient oxygen causes lactic acid fermentation Lactic acid must be removed by red blood cells o Alcohol fermentation Produces ethanol Catalyzed by pyruvate decarboxylase Cytoplasmic enzyme Coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate Carboxyl is removed from pyrophosphate Releases CO 2as o Reduces the size of the molecule by one carbon Becomes acetaldehyde Second reaction is catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase to oxidize NADH to NAD+ Reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol Fermentation of pyruvic acid by yeast produces ethanol found in alcoholic beverages o Other Fermentation Occur in bacteria Facultatively anaerobic Can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation depending on the availability of oxygen Obligate anaerobes Can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation depending on the availability of oxygen All forms of fermentation other than lactic acid produce gas Connections of Other Sugars to Glucose Metabolism Glycogen is an energy storage molecule When there is adequate ATP present, excess glucose is shunned into glycogen for storage Glycogen will be hydrolyzed into glucose monomers (G-1-P) if blood sugar levels drop o Glycogen as a source of glucose allows ATP to be produced for a longer period of time during exercise Glycogen is broken down to G-1-P and converted to G-6-P o G-6-P enters the glycotic pathway Glucose, fructose, and galactose are absorbed directly into the blood stream during digestion o Catabolism of glucose and fructose produces the same amount of ATP as glucose does o Sucrose = glucose + fructose o Lactose = glucose + galactose Connections of Proteins to Glucose Metabolism Amino acids are often recycled into the synthesis of new proteins In the case of starvation or excess of amino acids, some amino acids will be shunned into glucose metabolism pathways o Amino group must be removed first Converted to ammonia Connections of Lipids to Glucose Metabolism Cholesterol contributes to cell membrane flexibility and is a precursor of steroid hormones o Synthesized with acetyl group o Synthesis of glucose cannot be reversed Triglycerides function as a long-term energy storage o Made of glycerol and fatty acids o Can be made and broken down by glucose metabolism pathways o Glycerol can be phosphorylated to glycerol-3-phosphate Continues through glycolysis o Fatty acids are catabolized in beta-oxidation Takes place in the matrix of mitochondria and converts fatty acid chains into two carbon units of acetyl groups Acetyl groups are picked up by CoA and form acetyl CoA which proceeds to the citric acid cycle
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