Wildlife Ecology class notes week 7
Wildlife Ecology class notes week 7 FW 104
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Ann Randall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
October 4, 2016 Fisheries lecture What is a fishery? ● An exploited population of aquatic animals ○ Not just fish ● Broader view: ○ Aquatic biota interacting with environment ■ Manage ■ Conserve Three parts of fisheries ● Biota ○ Aquatic plants and animals ● Habitat ○ On land and in water ● Humans ○ Recreation and commercial Why are fisheries important? ● 2.6 billion people rely on fish to obtain protien ○ 200 billion pounds per year ● Jobs ○ 200 million ● Recreation ○ ½ billion days/yr fishing ○ > $100 billion dolllars Goals of fishery managment ● Gather information and apply knowlledge so actions can be taken to achieve management objective ○ Suatanible use ■ Commercial harvest and use ■ Recreational oppertunity ■ Aquarium trade ○ Conservation of biodiversity ○ Human health How do we collect data on fisheries? ● Type of sampling ○ passive Capture methods ■ Set it and wait ● Gill net ○ Vertical ○ Horizontal ● Trap (fyke) nets ● Long lines, pot or catfish traps ○ Active Capture methods ■ Actively search ● Seining ○ Beach seine ○ Purse seine ■ Lake ■ Comercial ● Trawl ○ Trawling for trouble ■ Bycatch ■ Habitat destruction ● Electrofishing ○ Backpack ○ Baot ○ Bank ○ Barge ○ Raft ○ Non-capture method ■ Visual observation ● Hydroacoustics ○ Sonar ● Creel survey ● snorkel/scuba ● Counting towers What measurements and data do we need to collect? ● Species ● Length ● Weight ● Habitat use ● Age ○ scales ● Reproductive condition ● Diet ○ Gastric lavage ● Movement ○ Pit tags ○ telemetry/ GPS ● Sex ● Health and disease ● population ● Marking ○ Fin clipping ○ Floy tags ○ Pit tags ○ tattoos Fish movement ● Fish move around ○ Even small stream fish can move a mile a day ○ Some fish migrate hundreds of miles to spawn ○ Where do they go? ■ Spawning habitat ■ Refuge habitat ■ Feeding habitat ● Barriers to movement ○ Many plains fishes are small bodied ■ This greatly restricts jumping and swimming ability ○ Even small barriers can ■ Block daily and seasonal migration ■ Block upstream colonization ○ Fish passage structure ■ Pool and weir ■ Vertical slot ■ Fish elevators ■ Rock ramp fishways ● Sloped channel ● Can be built without vertical drops and high velocity areas ● Need to identify the ideal slope October 6, 2016 Endangered Species Act Why do species become threatened, endangered, or extinct? ● Habitat loss ● Distrubance ● Contaminants ● Consumptive use ● invasives ● Commercial value ○ Pet trade ○ Illegal trade ● Tragedy of the commons ● Differing values 1973 endangered species act ● Allows protection for all species ○ Except non- natives and pest species ● Protects habitats as well as species ● Us Fish and wildlife service (DOI) and national Marine Fisheries service (NOAA Fisheries), dept. Of Commerce ● 18 sections ○ Section 2: findings and purpose ■ Purpose ● To conserve endangered and threatened species and the ecosystems on which they depend ○ Section 3: definitions ■ endangered ● Any species in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range ■ Threatened ● Any species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future ■ Crucial habitat ● Specific geographic areas with physical and biological features essential to the conservation of a listed species ○ Section 4: Listing, critical habitat Designation, recovery, monitoring ■ Identifying species for possible designation as endangered or threatened ■ Citizens may petition the FWS ■ The U.s. Fish and wildlife service may identify species through internal studies and species through internal studies and discussion with states, academia, and other experts in the specific community ■ Best scientific information available ■ Candidate species ● Species that warrant listing but are precluded by higher workload priorities are placed on a candidate species ● Who can be listed? ○ Allows for the protection of all animals and plants except invasive and pest species ○ In the case of vertebrates only, distinct subpopulations can be protected ■ Why is this important ● Better adapted ● Genetic diversity ■ Cost, politics ... ■ Critical habitat designations ● Controversy and confusion ● Critical habitat may include areas that are not currently occupied by the species but that will be needed for its recovery. ● Federal Register > public comment > publish rule ● Affect only Federal agency actions or federally funded or permitted activities ● Exclusion – “benefits of excluding …outweigh the benefits of including…” – economic analysis ● As of March 1, 2013, critical habitat has been designated for 661 of the 1,499 U.S. species listed as threatened or endangered species. ● Why haven’t we designated critical habitat for more species? ○ After a Congressional moratorium on listing new species ended in 1996, we faced a huge backlog of species needing to be proposed for listing as threatened or endangered. For this reason, we have assigned a relatively low priority to designating critical habitat because we believe that a more effective use of our limited staff and funding has been to place imperiled species on the List of Endangered and Threatened Species. ○ Additionally, the critical habitat designation usually affords little extra protection to most species, and in some cases it can result in harm to the species. This harm may be due to negative public sentiment to the designation, to inaccuracies in the initial area designated, and to the fact that there is often a misconception among other Federal agencies that if an area is outside of the designated critical habitat area, then it is of no value to the species. ■ Recovery ● Goals ○ Reduce or eliminate threats ○ Restore self-sustaining wild populations ( increase populations) ○ Remove species from the list ■ Why so few? ■ Monitoring - 5 years ■ Recovery plans ● Develop with stakeholders ● Identify recovery strategy ● Identify tasks and partners ● Establish delisting or downlisting criteria ● Provide timetable and cost estimate ● May address multiple species ■ Delisting ● Delisting criteria identified in the species’ recovery plan ● Federal register notice published and public comment sought on proposal to delist ● Recovered species monitored for five years ○ Section 6: financial Assistance to the states and Territories ■ Agreements ■ Funds ■ Review ■ Conflicts ■ Transition ■ regulation ○ Section 7: the role of federal agencies ■ Requires Federal agencies to: ● Initiate consultation with the Fish and Wildlife Service if agency action may affect a listed species or critical habitat ○ ACTION: proposed change to the land that may or may not affect listed species ● ALSO includes private individuals if actions need a Federal permit or funding. ● More than 70,000 Federal actions are reviewed annually. ● Of 1200 formal consultations per year, on average six percent result in ain jeopardy or adverse modification finding. ○ DOD ○ ~1% delisted/down-listed ○ Section 9: unlawful activities ■ Take means: harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect or to attempt to engage in these activities. Harm includes habitat destruction that kills or injures listed species. ■ The take prohibition for wildlife applies to any person including a federal agency . ○ Section 10: Exceptions, including permits ■ Land owner agreements ● Section 10(a)(1)(A) permitting authority is used to encourage species conservation on non-Federal lands. ○ Conservation Incentive Programs: Why? ■ • Safe Harbor Agreements (SHAs) • ■ Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) • ■ Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances (CCAAs) • ■ Conservation Banking ■ Exceptions ● Experimental Populations, Section 10(j) • ○ Experimental populations are treated as _________________ ○ Designating an experimental population as “nonessential” provides _____________________ ○ Special 4(d) rules exempt some activities from section 9 prohibitions ○ Section 11: penalties and enforcement ○ Section 17: NMFA Three phases of conserving endangered species ● Identification ● Protection ● Recovery Criteria for listing 1. Present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range 2. Overutilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes 3. Declining due to disease or predation 4. Inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms 5. Other natural or human-made factors affecting existence What is a “sustainable” population? ● At what number of individuals can we call a population sustainable, or viable in the long term? ○ ESA does not spell out a magic formula! ● Does it vary between species? ○ Why? ● Rules of thumb in conservation genetics: ○ “50/500 rule” ○ Ian Franklin and Michael Soulé: minimum population size of 50 was necessary to combat inbreeding and a minimum of 500 individuals was needed to reduce genetic drift, however… Grizzly bear status ● Delisted and then relisted ○ Why? ■ Climate change ■ White pine - blister rust ● Status different for different states/regions ○ issues with habitat size, sustainable pop size, buffers, genetic transfer …
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