Life 103 class notes week 6
Life 103 class notes week 6 life 103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to life 103 at Colorado State University taught by Heather Baker Blackburn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
September 26, 2016 Digestion and Circulation Concepts 41 - 42 cellulose ● Many herbivores often need microbiotic help in breaking down celluloses ● Some chew cud or practice cecotrophy Intestine house trillions of bacteria ● Around 400 in humans pyloi H causes stomach ulcers Some small flying animals ● Weight vs absorption ● Absorption between the cells Circulatory system ● Blood move w/ heart pump ● Nutrient and oxygen are carried to the cells through the blood with facilitated diffusion and active transport ● CO2 and other metabolic waste diffuses back to blood ○ Kidney filters out of blood ○ Eliminated through urine ● Links all other systems ● Animals must exchange material across cell membrane ■ In:building blocks nutrients energy oxygen ■ Out: Waste co2 urea ○ Diffusion in simple organisms ○ Circulatory system for more complex animals ■ Move fluid between exchange tissues and interstitial fluid ■ Nutrients fuels o2 co2 waste from cells immune factors blood clotting factors hormones Open system ● Hemolymph - circulatory fluid ● Contractions pumps into sinuses Closed system ● Vertebrates annelids and cephalopods ● Blood confined in vessels 1. Circulartory fluid 2. Set of vessels 3. Musscular pump Blood vessels vessel Arterieries Arterioles Capillaries Veins Venules Hearts ● Singular circulation - fish sharks ○ 1 atrium ○ 1 ventricle ○ 1 circuit ○ 2 capillary beds ○ Muscle contractions ● Double circulation: amphibians ○ 2 circuits ■ Pulmocutaneous circuit ■ Systemic circuit ○ 2 atrium ○ 1 ventricle ○ Reptiles can have a partially divided ventricle ● Double circulation : birds and mammals mammals ○ 2 circuits ■ Pulmonary circuit ■ Systemic circuit ○ 2 atrium ○ 2 ventricles September 28, 2016 Circulation and respiration September 30, 2016 Gas exchange and respiration Gas exchange ● Partial pressure ○ determines the net movement of gas ○ Atmospheric pressure @ sea level = 760 mmHg ○ Oxygen is 21% by volume ○ 760 mmHg x ).21 = 160 mmHg ● Partial pressure in liquid ○ Gasses dissolve in liquid reach equilibrium with surrounding gasses ○ O2 is less soluble in water than in air ○ Concentration: temperature, depth, etc…. Respiratory surfaces for gas exchange ● Cells need cell membranes in aqueous solution ● Rate of exchange ○ Surface area ○ Distance ● Earthworms and some amphibians ○ Skin with dense capillary bed Gills trachea and lungs have folded or branched surfaces ● Gills ○ Out folding of body surface ○ Ventilation ■ Movement of medium across the respiratory surfaces maintain partial pressure ○ Move water ○ Countercurrent exchange ■ Water one direction blood the opposite direction ● Tracheal systems ○ Network of tubules branching through the body ○ Open circulation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Lungs ○ Localized respiratory organs ○ Circulatory system required ○ Most mammals and reptiles depend entirely on upon lungs ○ Ventilation is required ■ Gas exchange occurrs in the aveioli ● Airsacs at tips of bronchials ● 100m2 ● Surfactants reduce tension of moist surfaces ○ Begin produce at 33 weeks ● Oxygen isnt very soluable in water or blood ○ Respatory pigments ○ Hemoglobin ■ Almost all vertabrates and some invertabrates ■ 98% of blood oxygen is bound to hemoglobin
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