Popular in Cultural Aspects of FDNS
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNDS 4630 at University of Georgia taught by Hea Park in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 10/3 -10/7 ) Monday: Dr. Alex Kojo Anderson Ghanaian food culture -The diversity of our population calls for appreciation of the challenges and understanding of the role of cultural foods in health What is food? Something that we consume that provides us with nutrients and positively impacts health. Development of food habits • Physical needs for survival • Social needs for security • Belongingness • Status Staple foods Thee basic diet consists of a starchy staple eaten with a soup or stew Southern Ghana: crops, such as plantains, cassava, cocoyam (taro), and tropical yams, predominate in the South -Cereal and grains predominate in the north Corn is significant, especially among the Ga, and rice is also popular The main dish is fufu, pounded plantain or tubers in combination with cassava (used to be mainly southern, not more popular around the country) Light soup- vegetable soup Palm nut soup Ground nut soup Kotonmere soup Soup ingredients include common vegetables and some animal protein, usually fish and invariably, hot peppers • As with any culture, food is central to the Ghanian life regardless of where you are in the world. • Chop bars (traditional restaurants) can be found on every corner of Ghana’s towns and in some major cities abroad too, like London, Atlanta, and New York -Everyone has a favorite dish and every region has its own specialties Greater Accra Region The main dishes in Accra include • Kenkey with hot pepper and fried fish • Banku with fried fish and pepper with okra or ground nut soup • Red red or yokogari bean stew with fried plantain or tatale • Omo tuo (rice balls) served with palm or groundnut soup • Local drinks include asana or maize beer, palm wine, coconut juice and akpeteshie Ashanti Region It is said that is an Ashanti man hasn’t eaten fufu, then he hasn’t eaten that day Fufu with light soup and smoked fish or groundnut soup Banku and grilled tilapia are all staples of the Ashanti diet Western region- where he was born and raised • The main dishes are akyeke (cassava-based- similar to couscous) served with avocado • Fufu and light soups with mushroom or snails • Popular drinks are coconut juice, palm wine, and akpetshie (99% alcohol) Eastern region- he also comes from here? • The Eastern region is a very diverse region and that is reflected in its cuisine- everything is here from fufu to omo tuo to tsintsinga Central region (where slave trade happened) • The main dishes include fante dorkunu (kenkey with fish and gravy) • Fufu and palmnut soups • Jollof rice • Fante fante (palm oil stew with small fresh fish) and tatale (fried plantain cakes) • Ampesi and oto (mashed yam) Volta region • The regional dishes include akple with okra soup • Fufu with palmnut soup • Abolo with shrimps and one man thousand • Banku with okra soup or pepper • Red red or fried ripe plantain Bron Ahafo Region • Fufu with nkontomrie (spinach) soup • Plaintain with stew Northern region- more muslim • Tuo zaafi, known as TZ, omo tuo or rice ball with groundnut or green leaves soup • Beans or cowpea with sheanut oil and pepper called tubaani • Koko or millet/corn pottidge eaten with koose (fried bean cakes) • Beverages include pito, a locally brewed beer made form millet, or toasted millet flour in water Upper West region • Tuo Zafi, omo tuo or rice balls Upper East region- same types of food as upper west, because used to be one big region Bofrot- doughnut Wednesday: Paan • End of meal • Paan is not uniquely Indian -Common in other countries of South Asia/Southeast Asia Diet Summary • Meat eating not prohibited (beef most likely), lamb, mutton, goat, pork, poultry, fish • Diet is primarily vegetarian -Relies on assortment of lentils/legumes, wheat, and rice buttermilk, yogurt common • Meal pattern: traditionally Vedas say 2 major meals should be eaten (morning and evening) -Today, 3 meals and snacks • Regionality: North, South, Goa and East • North -Use of fresh/dried fruits as well as nuts in meat dishes -Use of dairy products, milk is often a cooking medium -Heavy spice use -Wheat more common as a major starch • South -More likely vegetarian -Coconut milk is used as a cooking medium and dairy milk substitute -Rice or rice-based breads more common as major starch • Goa -West coast, broad religious base -Strong European, particularly Portuguese influence -Only here beef is likely to be consumed -Seafood common, vinegar preferred souring agent • East -Seafood consumed -Mustard oil is preferred Changes with Acculturation in US At arrival (lacto-vegetarian)à2-7 years post arrival (lacto to lacto-ovo vegetarian)àlater: meat consumption (56% of total immigrants eat beef) often no beef (half of the 56% consume beef) 21% population in India is non-vegetarian Asian Indian Diet Consumption Traditional: mostly plant based (70-80% carb)(10% protein)(10-20% fat) High sodium, high fiber, major animal protein dominantly milk-based Acculturated in US: (52% carb)(14% protein)(34% fat) Region of origin (north vs south India) effects seen after about 25 years in US Changes with acculturation in US Daily food preparation remains predominately indian -rice, dhal, and indian bread use continues Indian foods reduced with longer residence Ghee: olive oil, butter and margarine Yogurt: ricotta cheese and sour cream Butter- reduced with health concerns Indian savories Asian Indian: Diet and Health Asian Indians and Metabolic syndrome Risk factors: Central obesity Atherogenic dyslipidemia Elevated blood pressure Insulin resistance or glucose intolerance The biggest environment change for your body is diet. Your gene for disposal to a disease may be turned on or off based on your diet -Asian Indians are predisposed genetically to metabolic syndrome Increases with acculturation in US Obesity: increased risk with lower weight gain than other ethnic groups. 10 lb weight gain in Asian Indians = 30 lbs in white. BMI > 23 is a risk factor; normal healthy is 20-25 Coronary artery disease: 2-4 times higher than all other ethnic groups at all ages; 5-10 times higher than other groups if under the age of 40 Hypertension, diabetes, certain types of cancer, chronic constipation nd Regional Influence: Africa (African americans are 2 largest minority group) Traditional Food Habits: Ingredients and Common Foods West African diet changed significantly due to the introduction of New World Foods during the 15 and 16 century (before Africans came to the US) New world foods: (still in Africa) • Cassava • Corn • Chilis • Peanuts • Pumpkins • Tomatoes Old World Foods (native West African Foods) • Watermelon • Black eyed peas • Okra • Sesame • Taro When we think of their flavor principle, we think of the new world foods that were introduced in Africa In America, adaptations and substitutions were made based on available foods: West African + British + French + Spanish + Native American àAmerican Southern cuisine (emphasizing fried, boiled and roasted dishes using pork, pork fat, corn, sweet potatoes, local green leafy vegetables) Slave Castle in Elmina, Ghana • Ghana- point of departure to America • 1 arrived: 1619 in VA via a Dutch slave ship • African Americans today -Descendants of slaves -Directly from Africa -More recent immigrants from the Caribbean where they were descended from slaves Majority came from 32 Angola, 13 Nigeria Most from West Africa Cultural Perspective of Africa • 2 largest continent in the world • Estimated pop 1 billion (2010) • Much of the climate is tropical • Rainfall varies widely • Varied geography • Sahara desert • Many ethnic groups have evolved • Strong cultural identity West African Foodways A typical meal is.. Heavy on starchy foods and leafy greens Light on meat, meat is not centerpiece of the meal Generous on fat Milk is limited (consumed primarily by children) Flavor principle (tomato, peanut, and chile) • The flavor principle today is defined by foods with origin in________ • ______ includes not only intact legume. Also peanut butter and peanut oil. Peanut butter is used to tame the flavors of chilis and other spices • _________ preferred are extremely hot West African Seasonings Creative blends.. spicy, sweet, and hot In addition to chilis and peanut butter • Seeds: plain, toasted, pastes from steamed and fermented • Tamarind: seed with a sweet and sour flavor • Oils selected based upon their flavors for specific uses • Coconut milk and water: cooking medium • Salt: important Staple foods varied in each locality -Coastal area: corn, millet, rice -Southern region: yams, cassava, plantains -Sahara desert: no farming, herding instead -Camels, sheep, goats, and cattle Local fish, insects, and chickens eaten Food boiled or fried, dipped in sauce and eaten by hand Starchy vegetables (yams, plantains, cassava, sweet potatoes, potatoes) boiled and pounded into a paste called fufu Palm oil is the predominant fat (sometimes peanut, shea, or coconut oil used) Most dishes preferred spicy, thick, and sticky Soup and stews are popular
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