Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Notes POL241
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikayla Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL241 at Miami University taught by Tarah F. Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see American Political System in Humanities and Social Sciences at Miami University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 5: Civil Rights Definition: rights that guarantee individuals freedom from discrimination Slavery and its impact o Essential to southern economy (slaves 47% of population in deep south) o Founders largely avoided the issue o Missouri Compromise of 1820 limited the expression of slavery and kept the overall balance between slave states and free states; eased tensions for a while, but the issue persisted o Compromise of 1850 overturned Missouri Compromise and allowed each new state to decide for itself o Dred Scott v. Sandford: states could not be prevented from allowing slavery; slaves property rather than citizens and had no legal rights o Southern states seceded from union when Lincoln elected believing slavery was in jeopardy o Outcome of civil war restored national unity and ended slavery at a high price o Civil War amendments adopted to the constitution 13: banned slavery 14: states could not deny freed slaves equal protection of laws and provided citizenship to anyone born in US 15: African American men right to vote o Reconstruction Blacks gained political power through institutions such as the Freedmen’s Bureau and the Union League; could vote and hold office When troops withdrew from South, blacks left almost completely disenfranchised through imposition of residency requirements, poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clause, physical intimidation, etc o Jim Crow laws Segregation of races Forbade interracial marriage Mandated separation of races in neighborhoods, hotels, apartments, hospitals, schools, restrooms, water fountains, restaurants, elevators, cemetery plots Had to sit in back of bus or separate cars on train Supreme court validated these practices in Plessy v. Ferguson establishing separate but equal o Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Rejected separate but equal followed by Brown II (1955) which ordered that public schools be desegregated Latinos o Largest minority o Lack of political clout when compared to blacks: Vote at much lower rate because of language barriers and 1/3 are not citizens Relatively diverse group politically o Asian Americans: First wave of immigrants in 1848 gold rush Given hardest jobs on continental railroad so many died Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, Chinese already in US were prevented from becoming citizens; barred virtually all immigration from china Later Japanese singled out in WWII in internment camps o Women 19 amendment right to vote in 1920 th Until early 20 century, could not hold office, serve on juries, bring lawsuits in their own name, own property, or serve as legal guardians for their children, must give up citizenship if married a noncitizen Rationale was protectionism o Gay men and lesbians 1969 critical moment during a police raid on stonewall inn in NYC Customers fought back rather than submitting to arrests Legislation o 1964 Civil Rights Act Barred discrimination in employment based on race, sex, religion, or national origin Banned segregation in public places Established EEOC as the enforcement agency for the legislation o 1965 Voting Rights Act Eliminated direct obstacles to minority voting in South (literacy tests, registration tests, etc) o 1968 Fair Housing Act Barred discrimination in the rental or sale of a home based on race, sex, religion, or national origin Later disability and familial status o In 1966 National Organization for Women formed to push for enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act which barred discrimination based on gender o Title IX of the higher Education Act which prohibits sex discrimination in institutions that receive federal funds o Violence against women act 1994 Allowed women who were the victims of physical violence to sue in federal court o 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act Provided federal protections for disabled Americans in terms of workplace discrimination and access to public facilities o Defense of Marriage Act Defined marriage as only between a man and a woman Struck down in 2013
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