M4 Milestones in Biology Notes
M4 Milestones in Biology Notes BIOL 04102-03
Northwest Missouri State University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Morse on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 04102-03 at Northwest Missouri State University taught by Dr. Dieringer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Northwest Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
M4 MILESTONES IN BIOLOGY MENDEL’S GARDEN 1. Gregor Johann Mendel a. Father of genetics. b. Austrian monk. c. Discovered genes. 2. Infographic M4.1 theories of inheritance before Mendel a. Preformationist ideas i. Spermist theory 1. Sperm held a homunculus inside. ii. Ovist theory 1. The performed human was inside the egg. b. Blending ideas i. Semen and menstrual fluid contain the substance that contributes to offspring traits. ii. Particles from different parts of the body migrate to the egg and sperm. iii. Offspring traits are the result of blending these parent substances. 3. Hybrids a. The offspring of two different breeds or varieties. b. Physical traits can skip a generation. c. Pea plants i. Model organism. ii. Grew quickly. iii. Control environment for breeding. 4. Chose specific traits that he could see. a. Shape, seed color, pod shape, pod color, flower color, and stem length. b. Seed shape was either round or wrinkled. c. Seed color was either green or yellow. 5. Pea plants can self-pollinate. a. Flower contains both male and female sexual organs. b. Single plant can fertilize itself to produce offspring. c. Mendel covered pea flowers with a small bag so that he could control fertilization. i. Manually fertilizing plants with their own pollen and preventing pollen from another plant from entering. 6. True-breeding plants a. Crossed TB green-seeded plant with TB yellow-seeded plant. b. Crossed purple-flowered plant with white-flowered plant. c. For each cross: i. Mendel pollinated individual flowers from the two plants by hand. ii. Prevented self-pollination by removing the male reproductive parts from the plants to be fertilized. d. Purple and white flower experiment i. First generation (F1) all had purple flowers. 1. True purple 2. Not blended ii. Randomly selected two F1 plants to breed 1. ¼ of second gen offspring had white flowers. 2. Hidden white element in purple plants. 7. Mendel studied thousands of pea plant crosses and discovered the basic principles of inheritance. a. Dominant and recessive patterns of inheritance. 8. Principles a. Law of segregation i. For any diploid organism, the two alleles of each gene segregate separately into gametes. ii. Every gamete receives only one of the two alleles and the specific allele that any one gamete receives is random. iii. Infographic M4.3 Mendel’s law of segregation. 1. As egg and sperm join during fertilization, the resulting offspring has two alleles, just like each parent. 2. When an offspring has one of each allele it displays the trait of the dominant allele and the recessive allele is masked. b. Law of independent assortment i. Two alleles of any given gene segregate independently from any two alleles of a second gene. ii. Offspring can display any combination of the different traits, rather than inheriting the traits together. iii. Infographic M4.4 Mendel’s law of independent assortment 1. The texture alleles and the color alleles assort independently into each gamete. a. The result is a random combination of texture alleles with color alleles. 2. The result of independent assortment is that offspring display any possible combination of the seed texture and seed color traits. 2
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