Psychology, Week 8 Notes
Psychology, Week 8 Notes PSYC 2010 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Daniels on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction into Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Psychology | Week 8 Monday, October 3, 2016 Stability By age 4, intelligence tests predict scores as adolescents and adults Scores at 11, predict living independently at 77, less likely to have Alzheimer’s More intelligent children and adults live longer. Why? Extremes of Intelligence Low scores and poor adaptive functioning = intellectual disability Low IQ score = 70 or below Poor adaptive behavior: o Conceptual skills: understand how things work together o Social skills: how to make relationships o Practical skills: how to cook, get dressed, balance a checkbook High IQ score = 130 and above Healthy, well-adjusted, academically successful Some critics don’t want to have “gifted” programs because of self-fulfilling prophecy of others Need to have proper developmental placement Genetics Do genetics influence intelligence? Heritability: 50-80% Twin studies o Identical twin brains are virtually the same in areas associated with verbal and spatial intelligence o Intelligence is polygenetic o Genetic influence, not environment, become more apparent as we gain life experiences. Genetic influences o Studies of twin, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence. Adoption studies o Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted parents. Environment Impoverished environments o Malnutrition o Sensory deprivation o Social isolation o Early neglect Can depress cognitive development Increased schooling correlates with higher IQ Wednesday, October 5, 2016 Developing through the Lifespan Prenatal Development Conception: 1 egg and 1 sperm to form 1 cell Zygote: a fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo. At 9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus. Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus. o Ex. Alcohol At birth, most brain cells are present. After birth, the neural networks multiply resulting in increased physical and mental abilities. Newborns are born with different reflexes and different types of cries. 2 Maturation: the development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence. Physical Development Sitting: 6 months Crawling: 8-9 months Beginning to walk: 12 months Walking independently: 15 months Cognitive Development Influenced by our biological make-up and our environment, as well as the errors we make. Schemas: “mental molds” that help make sense of our experiences o Assimilation: involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema). Thinking a cow is a dog o Accommodation: the process of adjusting a schema and modifying it. Teaching that a cow is different from a dog Piaget’s Stages of Development Sensorimotor Stage Babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence. Sensorimotor criticism o Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think – they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas. o Recent research shows that children in this stage can think and count. 3 Friday, October 7, 2016 Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage – too young to perform mental operations. Preoperational Stage Criticism o Children as young as 3 are able to use mental operations Ex. hiding a teddy bear Egocentrism: can’t perceive things from another’s point of view Concrete Operational Stage Given concrete materials, 6-7 year olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities. Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Birth – 2 years – Sensorimotor: experiencing the world through senses and actions o Object permanence o Stranger Anxiety 2 to about 6-7 years – Preoperational: Representing things with words and images; using intuitive rather than logical reasoning o Pretend play o Egocentrism 4 About 7-11 years – Concrete Operational: thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations o Conservation o Mathematical transformations About 12 – Adulthood – Formal Operational: abstract reasoning o Abstract logic o Potential for mature moral reasoning What We Know Now That Piaget Didn’t Development is a continuous process Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition Lev Vygotsky By age 7, increasingly use words to think and learn Rely on inner speech Emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the social environment Scaffolding: teaching new words right above what the child already knows, helps the child move to high levels of thinking Attachment Harlow’s Monkeys Mary Ainsworth: watched how children responded when they were left with a stranger, and how they responded with their mother o Secure: are okay when mother leaves, but run back to her when she returns o Insecure Avoidant: angry with mother, avoided mother 5 Anxious-ambivalent: kids cry and cry, but when mother comes back in, they may or may not go to mother What happens when someone is deprived of attachment? o Withdrawn, frightened, unable to develop speech, other physically, psychological, and social problems. Parenting Styles Authoritative: demanding, but caring; good child-parent communication. Authoritarian: assertion of parental power without warmth. Indulgent: warm toward child, but lax in setting limits. Neglecting: indifferent and uninvolved with child. 6
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