Lecture notes from Week 8
Lecture notes from Week 8 Psyc 3580
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ivy Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3580 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Gitter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Social Psychology Dr. Gitter 10/4/16 Attitudes Do attitudes predict behavior? Wicker (1969): Attitudes sometimes fail to predict behavior o E.g. volunteering, the environment However, there are times that attitudes do predict behavior In order to see this in experiments, you must assure participants’ confidentiality. Behavior’s Influence on Attitudes Footinthedoor phenomenon (Freedman and Fraser, 1966) o Half of participants were asked to put small sign in window of their house that said “wear your seatbelt” foot in the door o Several weeks later, all participants were asked to put large, ugly sign in their driveway, also said “wear your seatbelt” o Results: the ones that agreed to small sign= 76% agreed to big sign, the ones that did not agree to small sign= 17% agreed to big sign o People favor acting in a consistent manner: become more of an advocate for wearing seatbelts because of signs in the yard/window Cognitive dissonance tension that arises when one becomes aware of inconsistency between thoughts, attitudes, and behavior o When you recognize that you’re being hypocritical or inconsistentwe must make it make sense to us Ex. If the people with small signs refused big signs= dissonance o This dissonance/tension motivates changing something. Ex. People who smoke cigarettes: in public, someone comes up and tells smoker that smoking kills you (assuming this is new information to smoker)feeling of dissonanceshould motivate smoker to quit smoking (but more likely to make excuses to make self feel better while still smoking b/c its addicting) Cognitive gymnastics back and forth with facts and excuses to calm the dissonance and not to quit smoking but still feel good about self Ex. agreeing to write essay favoring tuition increases (forced vs. “chosen”) Half of group forced to write proincrease essay: didn’t change attitude about tuition, blamed essay on others, “made me do it” Half of group were coerced but made own choice to write proincrease essay: attitude shifted more favorable to increase in tuition, can’t blame others because they made their own choice Cognitive Dissonance Theory PostDecision Dissonance (Brehm, 1956) o Women rated household objects of similar value (toaster, radio, etc) o Identified 2 objects that rated more similarly and gave them options to choose one of those objects to take home. o Made them rerate items: rates changed for selected items: Rated selected (to take home) item higher Rater other item lower o Shows how we work to justify our decisions. o Spend more time thinking about decision after decision is made than before. Attitude change is more likely is there is insufficient justification for the behavior. o Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) o Participants turn knobs for an hour o Paid $1 or $20 to tell next person that study is interesting (or no liecontrol group) o Measured participants’ attitude toward knob turning after they had to tell the lie Results: control didn’t like knob turning at all $1 group actually like it the most, much more favorability to knob turning, told self they enjoyed it b/c $1 wasn’t enough reason to just do it for the money must enjoy it to lie about it for just a dollar $20 group liked it was much as the control group not very much, justify lie to other participants because of the money o Why is this Dr. Gitter’s favorite study? They never gave any of them the money! Cognitive Dissonance and Effort Justification Cognitive dissonance can make you like something you should hate o Hazing I went through all this pain, I must be devoted Effort Justification (Aronson and Mills, 1959) o Participants had signed up for a sex discussion group. o Upon arrival, “new recruits” had to: Control do nothing to be allowed in Experimental pass embarrassment test Mild test say virgin, prostitute out loud to male experimenter Severe test recite obscene words and read from sex novels to male experimenter o Showed them video of last meeting very boring about ant sex; asked how likely they were to come to the next meeting Results: Severe test wanted to come back to meetings Mild test semilikely to come back to meetings Control group didn’t want to go to meetings at all **The harder you work on something, the more favorably you will remember it. Linking to previous content: Many of the strategies we talked about earlier help people to avoid/reduce dissonance. I’m a smart person, but I failed that test. o It’s someone else’s fault. I have a strong political attitude but I just found out there’s a problem with that attitude. o I seek out information in a confirmatory manner to support my beliefs. Attitude Polarization Some attitudes are very difficult to change. o Called embedded attitudes embedded in a network of thoughts o Tend to be highly polarized attitudes (political beliefs) o Associated with other attitudes Especially if you challenge those attitudes! Attitude Polarization Experiment: Participants recruited to either pro or antideath penalty. o Asked to read studies about death penalty. Those who prodeath penalty: o Spent more time with and agreed with supporting articles. Those who antideath penalty: o Spent more time and agreed with more dissenting articles. Everyone’s attitudes got stronger. Just thinking about an attitude makes it stronger. o Generate new arguments in favor of own attitude (and counterarguments to support one’s attitude against opposition) o Confirmation bias the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one’s existing beliefs and theories (Google it) Challenging someone’s attitude (with weak attacks) can actually make it stronger. o Especially if you are an outgroup member. Beliefs Beliefs tend to be more resistant to change o Beliefs explanations (of an event or person) o Attitudes evaluations (of an event or person) 10/6/16 Influence Social Influence tactics: Capitalize on human choice o Forceful requests can lead to reluctance (Brehm, 1966) o To avoid reactance, influence attempts to try to use choice rather than force. Influence tactics are often based on Heuristics o Normally work well for us… o Problem is, we overrely on them. o Each tactic capitalizes on important goals/motivations. Ex. salespeople Accuracy Goal #1 to be accurate we want to make the right decision Social Validation: Heuristic: when in doubt, go with majority opinions; do what everyone else does Examples: o Sitcoms and canned laughter o Crowd count different news shows reported different numbers to show support or not for candidate o Salting the tip jar we tip when other people have already tipped; put money in tip jar o Lines for nightclubs makes people want to go into bar o Saying things are “#1 selling” more people want to go into bar Especially effective when: o The crowd is similar to you. o The right behavior is ambiguous. Informational social influence looking to see what others are doing in order to make your decision Authority Heuristic: people in authority know more than me o Consumer reports, Better Business Bureau, going to the doctor o Note: it is important to look at the type of authority Pro football player on retirement ad; doesn’t worry about retirement because he’s got money “Doctors” smoke camels cigarettes wanted people to think camels were healthier than other brands. “Doctor recommended” failed doctors selling themselves to drug companies Scarcity Heuristic: something that is scarce has value o Diamonds are more valuable than coal because it’s rarer. o Supply and demand more you have, less its worth. o Sometimes related to social validation it’s scarce because people want it Examples: o Limited number tactic: “only so many in stock!” o Deadline technique: “For today only…”, “one day sale!” Managing the selfimage Goal #2: to manage our selfimage Heuristic: we should be consistent and stick to our commitments 4 general tactics: o All resulting from cognitive dissonance Get us to identify our attitudes/opinions… …makes us have to comply to be consistent with those attitudes/opinions o Footinthedoor make small request, followup later with a larger, related request “Try focus factor for 30 days!” o Lowball initial small cost gets compliance, extra costs tacked on later “Car only 13k!” (not counting tax, titles, tires, insurance, and engine) o Baitandswitch lured client in with great deal… “Stereos 50% off!”; then convince them of a better deal; “that’s a piece of junk, try this one!”; or inform them of the conditions of the deal “that’s only our lowend models” o Labeling “you look like a generous person…would you like to donate money?” **Don’t have to know difference between 4; know that they’re all based on cognitive dissonance. Approval and Acceptance Goal #3 Gaining social approval and acceptance o Reciprocity: (we do this naturally in relationships) Heuristic: you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours Examples: o Hari Krishnas and free flowers give out cheap, plastic flowers and ask for donations; gift first then reciprocity o Sign up for credit card and get a free tshirt. o Publishers Clearing House chance to win millions That’s not all! I have one more reciprocity technique for you! o Remember footinthedoor… o Well, doorintheface works too! Stars with initially large request. Start with initially large request. o Would you mind donating 2 hours of your time per week for the next 2 years? Back down and make a concession. How about just 2 hours this week? o Without initial request only 29% compiled o With initial request 76% compiled Liking Heuristic: If someone you like asks for a favor, it pays to say yes Exploitation: o “Hi Mr. Gitter, may I call you Seth?” “That’s Dr. Gitter to you!” o “Oh you’re from Wisconsin, so is my cousin!” Capitalizing on similarity/shared group membership. o Use of attractive sales people Sexy fundraisers study o Made in USA signs and Auburn decorations in stores o Look at all the great friends you’ll have! Finally… o Not all influence techniques use heuristics. Some actually try to stop their influence. o The Pique technique try to peak person’s interest; get them out of normal routine; homeless people asking for 37 cents instead of just change How do we stop influence? Again, most of these capitalize on useful heuristics. o But we’re overrelying on them. To stop influence, need to remain aware of the situation and rethink requests salesperson makes. o Is he really my friend? o Don’t they have sales all the time? o Would I have bought this if I knew how much it would end up costing me? o If this really is a “free gift”, do I really owe you anything? Persuasion Change in people’s private attitude or belief as a result of receiving Different from social influence: change in behavior Cognitive Response Model What is heard is more important than what is said o Focus on selftalk What type of thoughts are elicited by the message Effectiveness of a message determined by the thoughts evoked by the message. Thoughts dependent on: o Audience (who is listening) o Communicator (who is speaker, gender, race) o The Message (what is being said) Central vs. Peripheral techniques Central Deep processing audience o The message High quality arguments Regardless of quantity Steal thunder o The speaker Credible and trustworthy speaker Peripheral Superficial processing audience o The message Many arguments Regardless of quality Flashy presentational style Repetition Emotional appeals o The speaker “credible”, “trustworthy”, and powerful speaker Personal Relevance Students presented with arguments for a new comprehensive exam requirement. o Presented with either. 9 week arguments 3 strong arguments o Led to believe that the exam was either. Relevant they would have to take it Irrelevant wouldn’t go into effect until after they completed college