Life 103 week 7 class notes
Life 103 week 7 class notes life 103
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to life 103 at Colorado State University taught by Heather Baker Blackburn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
October 3, 2016 Co2 and respiratory adaptations Chapter 44 98% of blood oxygen is bound to hemoglobin Eliminate co2 through the bloodstream ● About 7% of co2 is dissolved in plasma ● The rest of co2 is diffused into erythrocytes, is converted into carbonic acid ○ H2co3 ● Allows more diffusion into blood ● Bicarbonate about 5% The bohr shift ● Increases oxygen unloading where production of co2 is high ○ Co2 and h2o react to form carbonic acid ○ Lowers pH ○ Decreased oxygen saturation at any Po2 Oxygen storage and transport adaptations ● Seals ○ Strage protiens in muscles, high blood volume ● Etheopian highlanders ○ Greater cardiac output, normal hemoglobin ● Andes ○ More hemoglobin, greater oxygen delivery ● Tibet Osmoregulation Osmoregulation is required for homeostasis ● Processes by which animals control solutes and water concentrations ● Many animals are homeotherms with regards to osmoregularity ● Challenges for desert or marine mammals ○ Conserve h2o ○ Eliminate salts Osmoregularity ● Hyperosmotic = hypertonic ○ More Solutes dissolved ● Hypoosmotic = hypotonic ○ Less dissolved solutes ● Isotonic = isosmotic ○ Same dissolved solutes Osmoconformers vs osmoregulators ● All osmoregulators are marine ● Osmoregulation in different habitats ● Transport epithelium = salt glands ○ Segul ○ Iguanas Nitrogenous wastes ● The products of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids The The mammalian kidney ● Excretory system ● Connected to the circulatory system ● Kidney structure ○ Renal artery enters ○ Renal vein leaves ○ Renal cortex ○ Renal medulla ○ Urine collects in the renal pelvis ○ Drained through ureter Renal cortex and medulla contain nephrons ● Each nephron filters blood and concentrates urine ● Each nephron is a long tube with Urine production in a nepheron 1. The Glomerulus Filters Water and Other Substances from the Bloodstream a. Each kidney contains over 1 million tiny structures called nephrons. Each nephron has a glomerulus, the site of blood filtration. The glomerulus is a network of capillaries surrounded by a cuplike structure, the glomerular capsule (or Bowman’s capsule). As blood flows through the glomerulus, blood pressure pushes water and solutes from the capillaries into the capsule through a filtration membrane. This glomerular filtration begins the urine formation process. 2. The Filtration Membrane Keeps Blood Cells and Large Proteins in the Bloodstream a. Inside the glomerulus, blood pressure pushes fluid from capillaries into the glomerular capsule through a specialized layer of cells. This layer, the filtration membrane, allows water and small solutes to pass but blocks blood cells and large proteins. Those components remain in the bloodstream. The filtrate (the fluid that has passed through the membrane) flows from the glomerular capsule further into the nephron. 3. Reabsorption Moves Nutrients and Water Back into the Bloodstream a. The glomerulus filters water and small solutes out of the bloodstream. The resulting filtrate contains waste, but also other substances the body needs: essential ions, glucose, amino acids, and smaller proteins. When the filtrate exits the glomerulus, it flows into a duct in the nephron called the renal tubule. As it moves, the needed substances and some water are reabsorbed through the tube wall into adjacent capillaries. This reabsorption of vital nutrients from the filtrate is the second step in urine creation. 4. Waste Ions and Hydrogen Ions Secreted from the Blood Complete the Formation of Urine a. The filtrate absorbed in the glomerulus flows through the renal tubule, where nutrients and water are reabsorbed into capillaries. At the same time, waste ions and hydrogen ions pass from the capillaries into the renal tubule. This process is called secretion. The secreted ions combine with the remaining filtrate and become urine. The urine flows out of the nephron tubule into a collecting duct. It passes out of the kidney through the renal pelvis, into the ureter, and down to the bladder. 5. Urine Is 95% Water a. The nephrons of the kidneys process blood and create urine through a process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Urine is about 95% water and 5% waste products. Nitrogenous wastes excreted in urine include urea, creatinine, ammonia, and uric acid. Ions such as sodium, potassium, hydrogen, and calcium are also excreted. October 5, 2016 Hormones and endocrine system 2 systems for comunication snd regulation in animal bodies ● Endocrine - hormones ● System - eletrical signals Hormones are chemical signalling molecules ● Hormones are excreted into the extra cellulear fluid, circulate in the blood ● Bind to receptors on target cells, to trigger a response ● Regulate development Signaling by the endocrine system is classified according to the type of secreting cell and the route taken by the signal 1. Endocrine signaling a. Hormones travel via blood stream b. Long distance 2. Paracrine signaling a. Local regulators b. Target is nearby 3. Autocrine signaling a. Target is producing hormone b. Local regulator 4. Synaptic signaling a. Travel across synapse b. Target neurons, muscles and glands 5. Neuroendocrine a. Secrete neurohormones b. Diffuses in blood stream 6. Pheromones -external signaling molecule a. Attracting mates b. Marking paths to food c. Marking territories October 7, 2016 Hormones and endocrine systems Hormones may be: ● polypeptides, ○ Chain of amino acid ○ insulin ● Steroids ○ Lipid ○ cortisol ● Amines ○ Single amino acid ○ epinephrine Water soluble hormones ● Exocytosis ● Travel in the blood stream ● Can’t diffuse through plasma membrane ● Cell surface receptors Lipid soluble hormones ● Diffuse out through the membrane of endocrine cells ● Bind to transport proteins for solubility in blood ● Diffuse into target cells ● Receptor in cytoplasm or nucleus Lipid soluble ● Hormone-receptor complex moves into the nucleus ● Interacts with DNA or protein bound to it ● Affects gene transcriptions to mRNA Hormones can have multiple effects ● Different target cells can have different receptors and signal transduction pathways ● Endocrine cells can be isolated ● Endocrine cells are usually grouped into endocrine glands Endocrine glands ● Ductless ● Secrete hormones into the surrounding fluid ● Pancreas is both endocrine and exocrine glands Simple endocrine pathway ● Secretion is a direct response of endocrine cell to environment cells ● Negative feedback loops common in homeostasis ● ●