Psychology 101 week seven class notes
Psychology 101 week seven class notes Psych 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Camp on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at Parkland College taught by Charles Baldwin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Psychology 101 in Arts and Humanities at Parkland College.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 6: Learning Learning Permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience. 2 Types of learning: Behavioral Knowledge based on experience. “learn by doing” Cognitive Thinking and analyzing it. 100 years ago British Philosopher developed associative learning theory. Associative learning any two sensory experiences that occur together will become associated together. 2 rules for associative learning: 1. Contiguity associations formed only when two events occur together. 2. Frequency more often events occur together, the stronger the association. Pavlov’s Dog Dog salvation experiment Classical conditioning neutral stimulus is paired with reflexive stimulus enough times until previously neutral stimulus provokes similar response. 4 Components of classical conditioning: Unconditional Response (UR) Unconditional Stimulus (US) Conditional Stimulus (CS) Conditional Response (CR) Other factors regarding classical conditioning Extinction Forget after years Spontaneous Recovery Remember after being brought up Counter Conditioning Change the circumstances Generalization and Determination Stimulus Generalization Similar stimulus to CS and elicits CR Stimulus Discrimination CS presented enough time without eliciting a response, person will learn to differentiate between similar stimuli. Rules regarding classical conditioning Contiguity absolutely required in order for classical conditioning to occur. CS must come before US. Trace Conditioning Can’t occur presenting CS too far in advance. Select strong or intense CS. Contingency CS has to be presented with US in a way that the learner can anticipate the US will soon appear. Rescorla Wagner For CS to be maximum effective, it may be unexpected. Intermittent Conditioning occasionally pairing US with CS to keep response active. Pavlov believed a new neural pathway in the brain was developed when classical conditioning occurred. Operant learning Behavioral or learning psychologist believe all learning is a process of conditioning or association of events. Operant conditioning responses are learned on basis of reward or punishment consequences. Responses “operate” on the environment in a way that produces a consequence. Thorndike’s Kitties 1911 experiment BoxCatMazeLatchFood Law of effect response followed by a reward will most likely occur again. Skinner’s Rat B.F. Skinners experiment with rats BoxMazeRatLeverFood Reinforce consequences that increase the possibility of reoccurrence. Operant conditioning is all about the effects reinforces have on behaviors. Shaping Rewarding successful approximations to the goal. Types of reinforces Positive increases likelihood of reoccurrence Negative removal of noxious stimulus leads to increased occurrence of behavior. Takes something negative away to increase reinforce Types of positive reinforces Primary reinforce Doesn’t require shaping or prior training to be effective “Premake Principle”- high probability responses can be used to reinforce lower probability response. Secondary reinforce- things that become reinforce through learning and experience. Timing must occur immediately. Punishment Decrease likelihood of a response (negative consequence) Rules for use of punishment Use least intense form necessary Must occur quickly Be firm, consistent, and accompanied with clear expectation. Negative consequences for punishment fear and aggression. Reinforce Schedule Extinction cessation off behavior after removal of a reinforce Fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, variable reinforce Continuous reinforcement all the time, good for acquisition phase Intermittent reinforcement Every now and then, good for sustaining good behavior Stimulus Discrimination and Generalization Stimulus discrimination learn to make particular response in presence to one stimulus, but not another. Stimulus Generalization learn to make a response in presence of stimulus that is similar, but not identical, to the one previously signaled availability reinforcement. Cognitive learning factor Learned helplessness Give up trying Latent learning not evident when it first occurs Cognitive maps mental representation of physical arrangement Insight suddenly seeing solution to a problem. Observational learning learn by watching others.