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Lecture 3 A Meeting of Cultures

by: Kenzie Blakely

Lecture 3 A Meeting of Cultures HIST1013

Marketplace > Texas Woman's University > History > HIST1013 > Lecture 3 A Meeting of Cultures
Kenzie Blakely

GPA 2.9

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About this Document

Lecture 3 notes, explains history of slavery
US History 1495-1895
Aubri Thurmond
Class Notes
slavery, Culture, America, baconsrebellion, english, spanish, Cortes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Blakely on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST1013 at Texas Woman's University taught by Aubri Thurmond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see US History 1495-1895 in History at Texas Woman's University.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Lecture 3      A Meeting of Cultures  Portugal was the 1  country to search for new ways to get to Asia  o Prince Henry the Navigator  Caravel (Heavy Hull & Lateen)   Pioneered the compass and quadrant  Portuguese began to raid Africa but military stopped them and forced to  abide by African trade rules  o Forced to limit trade to “factories”  Slaves  Gold o Lancados: Important intermediaries between European and African  traders  Found colonies on islands of African coast line   Race based plantation slavery (MAJOR TURNING  POINT IN HISTORY)   Sugar plantations  Characteristics of Atlantic Slave Trade  Africans played a major role.  o Africans marched captives to the factories for trade   Majority of the slaves are male o To engage in heavy labor­ Imbalanced gender roles = import of more  slaves   Middle Passage : Standard method of transportation of slaves  o 30% of all slaves died in the Middle Passage due to horrible  conditions  o Helped forge cultural and communal identity among survivors of  Middle Passage o Created family groups!   Large number of slaves being transported  o 1650­1831 More slaves came to New World than Europeans  o 11,000,000+ slaves over time brought over to New World Sugar and Slavery 1. 1  came in 1640 to Barbados  a. Sugar plantation b. Made plantation owners wealthy 2. Birth rate did not surpass the death rate until 1790 a. Only grew through importation of slaves Characteristics of slavery from Caribbean    Colonies  Both Men and women worked o Women worked through pregnancy to labor and right after child is  born o Slavery was hereditary through mothers family lineage (because if  any owner had sexual relations with a slave and bore a child, the child would be considered a slave not free, and father wouldn’t have to  claim it)  Strictly racially based   Corporal Punishment and violence was condoned by the white population  o Threatened with violence  Characteristics of Slavery Unique to the Caribbean  1. Particularly harsh and brutal  2. Planters condoned interracial sexual relationships a. Mixed race children received unique social treatment Early Virginia  “Society with Slaves”  Atlantic Creoles: 1   Africans in America, spent time in other parts of the  New World before being moved up north.  1. 1639 32 Africans brought to Jamestown colony by the Dutch  a. Next 50 years the status of Africans was unclear (Slave or indentured  servant??) 2. Anthony & Mary Johnson a. Active in local court system b. Freed indentured servants c. Had slaves and servants Nathaniel Bacon   Wealthy  Newly immigrated  Wanted land West  Used anger of freed servants over lack of land, burned down Jamestown and  raised Indian lands west of Virginia   Died of dysentery during his rebellion Task System 1. Slaves were given a “to­do list” 2. Once work was finished for the day they could do what they wanted (within  reason) 3. Unique to South Carolina a. Primarily treated “better” to preserve the life of their slaves, money  saving tactic used by slave owners 4. Created creole languages  a. Gullah b. Gichi Gang System 1. Slaves worked from sun­up  sun­down 2. Used everywhere but South Carolina  Slavery in the North East 1. Small groups of slaves on small farms a. Only 1 or 2 slaves to a farm : lead to an isolated feeling 2. Slaves worked alongside their owners Largest concentration of slaves was in New York City = 15­18% of NYC  population! Triangle Trade  Atlantic trading system of goods and slaves Caribbean’s = sugar Colonies would send grains to Caribbean in return for molasses which was  turned into rum which was sent to Africa in exchange for slaves  Slave Rebellions 1. NY slave conspiracies 1712&1741 2. Stono Revolt in S.C. (1739)  a. 150 slaves murdered their owners and stole weapons and ammo  b. Marched to Florida (Spanish Territory ) in search for freedom c. Intercepted by planters and violently killed Fictive Kin:  Expanded family network in case a child or spouse was separated  Ex. Calling your Dads best friend your uncle Characteristics of Spanish Colonization 1.  Most were male 2.  Created a racially mixed population  3.  Mestizos: Spaniard + Indian 4.  Mulattos: Spaniard + African Hernan Cortes (Spanish) + Merrin Shay (African) = Baby Martin (Mulatto) Encomienda: Conquistadores given land and slaves as a reward for working  for the crown  Worked to death in mines and sugar plantations Repartimiento: Required Indians to work for Spanish on a rotation ( So that  they wouldn’t die as quick)  Bartolome De Las Casas A. Spanish Missionary  B. Spoke out about the way Spanish were treating Indians C. His book got attention of the King who chastised  conquistadores for the way they were treating the Indians Spanish Missionaries  Tried converting Indians to Catholicism  Native populations accepted Catholicism and also kept their earlier  traditions (Religious Syncretism) o Ex. Virgin of Guadalupe Fur traders and Europeans kept a steady trade of muskets in exchange for  beaver pelts! ­ Indians trapped all of the beaver on their land and  encroached on others land to hunt  lead to Indian  warfare  French Jesuit Missionaries 1.  Lived with Indian Tribes 2.  Learned native languages 3.  Had a huge impact on Indian spirituality The Treaty of Penn: Penn believed colonists needed to buy land from Indians and  wait until they found land suitable for their tribe. This ended with Penn’s death.  King Phillip’s War   1675  Metacom (King Phillip) was angered by colonists moving more west  o From Massachusetts  Connecticut  Maine  Killed 10% of English­ even though the English won  Mohawk Tribe helped the English  Last uprising! John Elliot: Established “praying towns” to help recently converted protestant  Indians learn how to be English (assimilation town) 


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