Lecture 3 A Meeting of Cultures
Lecture 3 A Meeting of Cultures HIST1013
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Blakely on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST1013 at Texas Woman's University taught by Aubri Thurmond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see US History 1495-1895 in History at Texas Woman's University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Lecture 3 A Meeting of Cultures Portugal was the 1 country to search for new ways to get to Asia o Prince Henry the Navigator Caravel (Heavy Hull & Lateen) Pioneered the compass and quadrant Portuguese began to raid Africa but military stopped them and forced to abide by African trade rules o Forced to limit trade to “factories” Slaves Gold o Lancados: Important intermediaries between European and African traders Found colonies on islands of African coast line Race based plantation slavery (MAJOR TURNING POINT IN HISTORY) Sugar plantations Characteristics of Atlantic Slave Trade Africans played a major role. o Africans marched captives to the factories for trade Majority of the slaves are male o To engage in heavy labor Imbalanced gender roles = import of more slaves Middle Passage : Standard method of transportation of slaves o 30% of all slaves died in the Middle Passage due to horrible conditions o Helped forge cultural and communal identity among survivors of Middle Passage o Created family groups! Large number of slaves being transported o 16501831 More slaves came to New World than Europeans o 11,000,000+ slaves over time brought over to New World Sugar and Slavery 1. 1 came in 1640 to Barbados a. Sugar plantation b. Made plantation owners wealthy 2. Birth rate did not surpass the death rate until 1790 a. Only grew through importation of slaves Characteristics of slavery from Caribbean Colonies Both Men and women worked o Women worked through pregnancy to labor and right after child is born o Slavery was hereditary through mothers family lineage (because if any owner had sexual relations with a slave and bore a child, the child would be considered a slave not free, and father wouldn’t have to claim it) Strictly racially based Corporal Punishment and violence was condoned by the white population o Threatened with violence Characteristics of Slavery Unique to the Caribbean 1. Particularly harsh and brutal 2. Planters condoned interracial sexual relationships a. Mixed race children received unique social treatment Early Virginia “Society with Slaves” Atlantic Creoles: 1 Africans in America, spent time in other parts of the New World before being moved up north. 1. 1639 32 Africans brought to Jamestown colony by the Dutch a. Next 50 years the status of Africans was unclear (Slave or indentured servant??) 2. Anthony & Mary Johnson a. Active in local court system b. Freed indentured servants c. Had slaves and servants Nathaniel Bacon Wealthy Newly immigrated Wanted land West Used anger of freed servants over lack of land, burned down Jamestown and raised Indian lands west of Virginia Died of dysentery during his rebellion Task System 1. Slaves were given a “todo list” 2. Once work was finished for the day they could do what they wanted (within reason) 3. Unique to South Carolina a. Primarily treated “better” to preserve the life of their slaves, money saving tactic used by slave owners 4. Created creole languages a. Gullah b. Gichi Gang System 1. Slaves worked from sunup sundown 2. Used everywhere but South Carolina Slavery in the North East 1. Small groups of slaves on small farms a. Only 1 or 2 slaves to a farm : lead to an isolated feeling 2. Slaves worked alongside their owners Largest concentration of slaves was in New York City = 1518% of NYC population! Triangle Trade Atlantic trading system of goods and slaves Caribbean’s = sugar Colonies would send grains to Caribbean in return for molasses which was turned into rum which was sent to Africa in exchange for slaves Slave Rebellions 1. NY slave conspiracies 1712&1741 2. Stono Revolt in S.C. (1739) a. 150 slaves murdered their owners and stole weapons and ammo b. Marched to Florida (Spanish Territory ) in search for freedom c. Intercepted by planters and violently killed Fictive Kin: Expanded family network in case a child or spouse was separated Ex. Calling your Dads best friend your uncle Characteristics of Spanish Colonization 1. Most were male 2. Created a racially mixed population 3. Mestizos: Spaniard + Indian 4. Mulattos: Spaniard + African Hernan Cortes (Spanish) + Merrin Shay (African) = Baby Martin (Mulatto) Encomienda: Conquistadores given land and slaves as a reward for working for the crown Worked to death in mines and sugar plantations Repartimiento: Required Indians to work for Spanish on a rotation ( So that they wouldn’t die as quick) Bartolome De Las Casas A. Spanish Missionary B. Spoke out about the way Spanish were treating Indians C. His book got attention of the King who chastised conquistadores for the way they were treating the Indians Spanish Missionaries Tried converting Indians to Catholicism Native populations accepted Catholicism and also kept their earlier traditions (Religious Syncretism) o Ex. Virgin of Guadalupe Fur traders and Europeans kept a steady trade of muskets in exchange for beaver pelts! Indians trapped all of the beaver on their land and encroached on others land to hunt lead to Indian warfare French Jesuit Missionaries 1. Lived with Indian Tribes 2. Learned native languages 3. Had a huge impact on Indian spirituality The Treaty of Penn: Penn believed colonists needed to buy land from Indians and wait until they found land suitable for their tribe. This ended with Penn’s death. King Phillip’s War 1675 Metacom (King Phillip) was angered by colonists moving more west o From Massachusetts Connecticut Maine Killed 10% of English even though the English won Mohawk Tribe helped the English Last uprising! John Elliot: Established “praying towns” to help recently converted protestant Indians learn how to be English (assimilation town)