Popular in Perspectives In Human Bio
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bennett Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 129LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Almon, R R in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Chapter 6 10/05/2016 ▯ Barriers of the body Skin, Lungs, and the Digestive System Controlled exchange of molecules and heat Warm-blooded animals are very energy “expensive” (takes a lot of energy) Rapidly turning over cells (b/c interfaces with outside world can get damaged) ▯ The Skin It’s the surface barrier of the body Replacement- stem cells that differentiate to make new skin A few hairs- humans don’t use hair to keep warm Sweat glands- packages of water around the body, that transfers heat to sweat to throw it away Nerves- information: touch, temperature, and pain (transfer this information to the brain) ▯ Heat Heat capacity- how much heat something can hold before it changes it’s form, water boils when it has TOO MUCH heat Heat transfer- pool, set up cue ball and you can hit the other balls an the cue ball stops. You have transferred the heat energy to the other balls. OR how fast water molecules are moving, heat is transferred through collision, molecules are moving faster but the muscle is now cold o This is why you have water pump and radiator in car, taking heat from the engine to the radiator ▯ Control of Body Temperature Information into the brain o Surface sensors: “I feel hot or cold” o Temperature of blood circulating to the brain You get a brain freeze because your esophagus, you’re changing the blood flow pattern in your head ▯ Importance of Heat Too much heat destroys large molecules Reactions are energy transfer among molecules Rates of reactions are a function of temperature o Heat is bumping from molecule to molecule and at some point when you increase temp. they bump more At 86 degrees the brain is unable to warm itself o This is when you feel warm but your body is actually getting cold o Alcohol tells hot blood to go to surface (this is why your face feels warm when you drink) At 106 degrees the brain is fried (brain damage) ▯ Heat Exchange There are 3 processes o Radiation (sunlight: energy started from sun) o Conduction (bumping into things, how hot blood gets to surface and we try to get rid of this) o Evaporation (sweat evaporates and that’s why we feel cold) ▯ Conduction Moves heat around the body and to the surface of the body Molecules of water bumping into each other Sweat is water containing heat that can be “thrown away” On a cold day, you keep heat inside to keep your insides warm and on a warm day the opposite happens ▯ Lungs Gas exchange Composition of air (made up of gasses) ▯ Hemoglobin Binds O2 The concentration of O2 controls the ability of Hb to bind O2 Only free O2 plays in the game concentration game Molecules flow from a high concentration to a low concentration o Sinks is a way to move O2 and CO2 from the concentration ▯ Other Factors Stress- opens airways, increases depth of breathing, increases blood flow Drug or condition that changes pH (blood H+ concentration) Drugs- any drug that depresses brain function ▯ Digestive System What we put in o Protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, water Three processes o Movement o Breaking up molecules o Absorption into blood Don’t eat and talk at the same time it can cause you to choke ▯ Stomach More water plus H+, Cl- Digestive enzymes that are “turned on” by H+ H+ destabilizes bonds between amino acids in proteins ▯ Small Intestine Put in OH- to neutralize H+ Turns off protein digestive enzymes Fat digestion- bile salts make oil and water mix Absorption into blood o Sifting the stream for molecules and other nutrients o Nutrient filled blood goes to the liver (Hepatic Portal Vein) ▯ Large Intestine Additional digestion by bacteria Water recovery ▯ Problems with Digestion Excessive stomach acid o Mild heartburn o Severe ulcers Drugs o Antacids the water disturbs blood pH and the acid rebounds o Tagamet, Pepcid are antihistamines that block production of HCl Malabsorption (small intestine) o Celiacs disease is an autoimmune disease People do not spend enough time on digestion and absorption Many drugs cause acid production o Coffee o Tea o Coke o Alcohol o Some heart medications Antibiotics can kills the “good” bacteria in the large intestine ▯ ▯ Bio 129 Chap. 5 continued 09/30/2016 ▯ Kidney Filters out water, ions, and small molecules from circulation Generally, sugars and amino acids are returned Water and ions must be balanced ▯ Control of the Kidney Blood flow to the kidney- how much blood is filtered (autonomic nervous system) ADH from the pituitary- increases the recovery of water Mineralocorticoids from adrenal gland- increases recovery of Na+ (low Na+ concentration) ▯ Problems with Blood Pressure Prehyperpertension: >140/90 o Volume o Resistance o Congestive heart failure Hypotension o Gravity (shock) ▯ Returning blood from the feet “Push” and “Suck” Push- skeletal muscles Suck- the expanding chest when you breath and the expanding heart when it relaxes Water Environments of the Body Without circulation the large water environments inside and outside cells starve and become stagnant Most of water is inside our cells ▯ Control of Circulation Heart- how often, how strong Arteries- how open Capillaries- exchange permeability Veins- push and suck Kidney- general volume control ▯ Metabolic Syndrome: Many aspects involve circulation Diabetes Hypertension (resistance or volume problem) Arthosclerosis Blindness Kidney failure Impotence Stroke ▯ ▯
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