Anthropology 1 Lecture Notes - Week 1
Anthropology 1 Lecture Notes - Week 1 Anthro 1
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Popular in Anthropology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by JC Dy on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 1 at University of California Berkeley taught by Lisa Maher in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in Anthropology at University of California Berkeley.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Dy 1 Berkeley Anthro 1 Introduction to Biologi nthropology 8252016 Lecture 1: ntroduction Anthropology ● Anthropology the study of humans ( nthropos uman, ology science) ○ Anthropologists study humans from a comparative perspective cul turally ● Culture learned values, orms, and lifestyles Types of Anthropology ● SocioCultural Anthropology compares and studies human cultures ○ Belief systems, political systems, economic strategies, kinship, globalization, immigration, conflict, gender oles ● Linguistics compares and studies language use ● Archaeology studies material remains of past populations ○ Ex: tools, clothing, constructed buildings ● Physical/Biological Anthropology studies human evolution and variation ○ Study of human lif from an evolutionary perspective ○ Biocultural approach genes, environment, culture ○ Primatology living primate biology and behavior ○ Skeletal Biology the bones of past populations ○ Paleoanthropology he evolution of humans 6 Events of Human Evolution ● Bipedalism ability to walk ● Nonhoning Chewing changes the types of foods we eat ● Material Culture toolmaking ● Speech ● Hunting hunting in groups, using tools we hunt ● Domestication of Plants and Animals manipulating the world around us 1. Biological Anthropology, Genetics, Evolutionary Theory 2. Primates 3. Human Evolution: Fossil ecords 4. Prehistoric nd Historic Humans 5. Modern Human daptation and Variation Dy 2 8302016 Section 1: Biological Anthropology, Genetics, Evolutionary Theory Lecture : volutionary Theory Evolutionary Explanation: Answer questions about why we are the way we are ○ Ex: hy o we talk on two legs? Preevolutionary Views ● Stasis the world is fixed and unchanging ○ Fixity of species all lif on earth iscreated by God and was unchanging ○ Fixity of culture all cultures of the world were constant/fixed over time ● The Great Chain of Being lif is a series of creations reflecting increasingly perfect organism (from most lowly forms, to humans, to angels, and God) ● Design God is the divine “watchmaker” God’s plan is revealed by creation Scientific Revolution The Age of Discovery The Industrial Revolution ● Copernicus challenged the idea that the earth was the center of the universe ● Galileo the universe was a place of motion, NOT fixity ● Kepler, Descartes, Newton established laws of physics, motion, and gravity Scientific Influences on volutionary Theory ● Geology ○ James Hutton Uniformitarianism the processes that made changes in the Earth’s crust are the same processes that operate today ○ Charles Lyell Principles of Geology can see accumulations of small changes over time ● Palaeontology ○ Johann eringer ound ake fossils ○ Branch of science concerned with fossil animals and plants ○ Georges Cuvier, Compte de Buffon studied comparative anatomy and palaeontology, history of life ● Taxonomy and Systematics ○ John Ray searched for a classification system to explain the divine order of creation ○ Carolus Linnaeus father of modern taxonomy allorganisms can be grouped ased on shared characteristics Dy 3 ○ ● Demography ○ Thomas Malthus wrote n Essay on the rinciple of Population ■ Population size can increase exponentially, while food supplies remain relatively stable dangerous i unconstrained ■ Competition for food “Survival of the fittest” Evolutionary Biology before Darwin ● Erasmus Darwin focused on explaining the geological record, adaptation ● Jean Baptiste de Lamarck animals have an internal drive to accommodate to environmental conditions successful accommodations become physiological and are passed n to the next generation ○ Ex: Giraffe keeps stretching neck, passing on longer neck to child ● Alfred Russell Wallace discovered the logic of natural election Charles Darwin ● Investigating geology and biology took detailed specimens, notes and sketches ● On the rigin of Species (1859) ● Darwin’s Evolutionary heory ○ Adaptation physical features that enhance survival and reproduction based on the habitat ○ Natural Selection characteristics that enhance survival increase in the population ver ime ○ Adaptive Radiation out of one species branch many related species ● Artificial Selection ○ Differential reproduction intentionally modify stocks by selective breeding Natural Selection (Darwin) 1. “Grandchildren resemble grandfathers 2. Tendency to small change especially with physical change but can accumulate 3. Great fertilit in proportion to parental care Natural selection Richard Lewontin) 1. Heritability (genetics) 2. Individual variations 3. Overreproduction nd biased roduction/survival Natural selection an unintentional selection due to natural variations of environment over long ime spans ● Descent with modification biological changes over generations Dy 4 ● Plasticity change over lifetime Mechanisms Inheritance ● Wilhelm Ludvig ohannson ○ Genotype (allele pair), phenotype (physical expression) ● Thomas unt Morgan ○ Mutations new enes spontaneously appearing ○ Chromosomes ● Gene flow diffusion via reproduction ● Genetic drift random change in form of gene DNA Watson & Crick ladder like,double helix structure Macroevolution genetic changes over time in populations leading to speciation Microevolution genetic alterations within a population, same population differences Dy 5 912016 Lecture 3: Inheritance of Biological Traits Evolution Misconceptions ● Evolution has not stopped humans are stilevolving ● Evolution is not about being “stronger, better”, but about fitting with the environment, which features of organisms get reproduced over generations ○ The species that survives is the one most responsive to change ● Evolution is ot al by chance ○ An organism’s evolutionary history affects how itcan change in the future ● Evolution is not species replacement itis the accumulation of changes within a lineage that causes i to diverge in form from others ● No organism is “more evolved” than another Evolution Fact or heory? ● Theory the explanation as how even evolutionary change happens: natural selection, gene flow, genetic drift utation ● Fact life changes over ime Selection ● Stabilizing Selection individuals have similar traits similar size ● Directional Selection Individuals have selection favoring extremes, longer tails ● Disruptive Selection Selection favors divergent forms, males vs females Prokaryotes ● Single celled bacteria, 3.5 ya ● Nucleoid, ut no nucleus, no organelles Eukaryotes ● Found in some singlecelled, al multicellular organisms (humans) ● Contains it own genetic material (DNA) in a nucleus, has organelles Somatic Cells and Gametes ● Somatic cells body cells that have all46 chromosomes ● Gamete cells sex cells that have only 23 chromosomes ○ Meiosis Chromosomes ● Homologous pairs ○ Autosomes (22 pairs) nonsex ○ Sex chromosomes 1 pair) ■ Sex is determined by the ather ● Karyotype DNA makes up genes which make up chromosomes which make up the genome Mitosis zygote with 46 chromosomes Meiosis each parent cell is haploid (23 chromosomes) Dy 6 Law of Independent Assortment ● Different traits have an equal opportunity of occurring ● Individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production DNA and Protein Synthesis ● 7 Types of roteins ○ Enzymes Catalyze chemical eactions ○ Structural Proteins give structure or support to tissues ○ Gas Transport Proteins carry vital gases to tissues ○ Antibodies part of i mmune ystem ○ Hormones ○ Mechanical Proteins ○ Nutrients Transcription and Translation ● Transcription DNA transcribed into mRNA in the nucleus of the cell ○ Occurs in he nucleus ○ DNA i unzipped, one strand is sed ○ Uracil substitutes Thymine ● Translation mRNA translated into an amino acid chain at the ribosomes Junk DNA ● Noncoding DNA hat akes p 98% of genome ○ It regulates gene function nd activity Regulatory Genes on/off switches for enes ● Noncoding RNA can turn on/off genes, even discard or shut down genes Homeotic (Hox) Genes regulate position of major body parts during embryonic development