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by: Clarissa Castillo


Clarissa Castillo
GPA 3.15

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Castillo on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Tampa taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
The University of Tampa PSY 230 Theories of Personality Discussion Questions for Feist/Feist/Roberts KLEIN Chapter 1. According to F/F/R, object relations theory differs from Freudian theory in what three ways?  Focuses more on the nurture aspect rather then the nature aspect of personality; more importance in the consistent patterns and interpersonal relationships the individual is exposed to  The mother seems to be the source of energy that drives this theory; the more intimate and nurturing of the mother  Focuses more on the human interaction rather then the sexual pleasure principle 2. How does Klein describe the “phantasy” life of infants?  Since infants cannot put words into thoughts, they distinguish between the good and the bad. Klein uses breast, she explains how infants have thoughts however when behaving in an aggressive manner they seem to associate this into fighting the “bad breast” and vice versa  Klein also spelled phantasies the way she did so that we knew there was a clear difference between what infants think compared to older children and adults  Incorporates phantasies of the ID 3. Describe the relationship that exists between the ego and the breast during infancy, according to Kleinian theory.  The infant is split between the good breast and the bad breast  Good Breast: being these to nourish and feed the child; allowing them to have positive interactions with other object such as the father  Bad Breast: not being there to nourish, exposing the child to hunger and isolation. When experience this the child might have negative association with other objects  The ego does the identifying and then uses that introjections  Ego does the splitting, saves and protects it  Uses the breast as the code word of what the mother is 4. Contrast Freud and Klein’s conceptualizations of the superego.  The superego is still has inferior qualities however it lacks guilt and instills terror  It does this as ad defense mechanism from the harsh ego; the ego recognizes that it’s bad and uses the superego to control these actions  Klein did not believe the superego emerged from the Oedipus Complex, but rather grew alone side it  The superego grows out of the ego’s experiences “bad breast”  Freud would say that the guilt would come from the hate these infants feel  The super ego starts earlier rather then later (5 years old) 5. Briefly define each of Mahler’s three stages in the development of normal object relations.  Normal Autism: (3-4 weeks old) Where the infant is unaware of any people beside themselves because everything is given to them. They naturally search for the mothers breast because it is simply there. The womb  Normal Symbiosis: (5- 6 weeks) Here we start to see how the infant responds to the caregiver. Understanding that a relationship is being made. The infant sees this relationship as some form of system. “A crack in the egg”  Separation- individuation: (4-5 months) The infant start to break free from the already established relationship with their mother. They want to be expose to danger, releasing themselves from this psychological separation from their mothers. This stage is separated into sub stages; 1. Differentiation; infants want to Esperance strangers and observe them, thus being a healthy infant, understanding the difference between these strangers and their mothers. 2. Practicing; infants realize the body differences between themselves and their mothers. Even though these infants are crawling and experiencing the world, they still tend to become distress when they loose sight of their mothers. 3. Rapprochement; infants understand cognitively the separation between their mothers and try to establish that relationship again. They want to bong with their mothers through the experience they have. 4. Libidinal object; infants learn to create a fictional character of their mother to help them adapt when she’s away. 6. What two narcissistic needs does Kohut’s theory indicate are common in infants?  The grandiose exhibitionist self: Infants develop this mirror image of themselves. Almost to say that “if they see themselves as perfect, that means they are indeed perfect” if others, like a laughter (seeing themselves in the eyes of the parent)  The idealized parent image: Infants see their parents as perfect then therefore understand they themselves are perfect simply because they are apart of their parents 7. What are the two fundamental assumptions that underlie an understanding of infant attachment, according to Bowlby?  The caregiver must be dependable so that the child can be successful in exploring the outside world. With a dependable parent the child feels more confident and secure, allowing greater chances of survival.  The relationship between the child and the caregiver is the foundation for other relationships to be developed. The child establishes a healthy relationship with their caregiver, therefore making it easier to establish healthy relationships with others as well. 8. Hazan and Shaver studied the correlation between early attachment styles and the quality of later adult relationships. What did they find?  Researchers founds that those adults that established a healthy relationship with their caregivers were likely to have positive associations in their love life during their adult ages. These individuals enjoyed a long lasting relationship and encountered less divorces.  Those individuals that didn’t have a healthy relationship with their caregivers were obsessed with their relationships and were more likely to end up in divorce.


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