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ENVIR 100 Week 2 Notes

by: Rachel Pollard

ENVIR 100 Week 2 Notes ENVIR 100

Rachel Pollard

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Notes from three lectures of Week 2
Introduction to Environmental Studies
Elizabeth E. Wheat
Class Notes
Environmental Studies, Environment
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVIR 100 at University of Washington taught by Elizabeth E. Wheat in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Studies in Environment at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Population Monday, October 3, 2016 9:21 AM Review: Anthropocene • Anthropocene: definition, patterns and dynamics • The great acceleration • Planetary boundaries: which ones and their current status • Coupled human and natural system (CHANS) o Reciprocal effects and Feedback loops o Regime shifts o Tipping points o Emergent properties o Legacy effects and time lags o Resilience o Vulnerability Human Population • Over 7.3 billion people • Most numerous vertebrates on Earth • Average growth rate: 80 million people per year Human Dimension of Environmental Studies • How many people can the earth support? • Is the total number the only concern? Or should we also be concerned about our ways of living? • Why and how do we control population? • What's the future projection of population? Human Numbers Through Time: A.D. 0 • Year 0: 300 million people (2,000 years ago ) • Year 1000: 310 million people • After the Industrial Revolution: 800 years later the population has climbed to one billion people. Almost 65 percent of all people lived in Asia. • 1927: 2 billion people. From 1920 to 1950, the population growth rate hovered around 1 percent a year. • 1960: Three billion people, advances in medicine, agriculture, and sanitation had spread to many places in the developing world. The growth rate hit an al -time peak of 2.04 percent a year. o The Great Acceleration • 1987: 5 billion • 1999: 6 billion people. Asia is home to the majority of Earth's inhabitants - roughly 61 percent • 2050: 9 billion people • Reasons for population growth: Columbus discovers America --> colonial period beings --> Industrial Revolution begins --> Medical Revolution begins • "The current population of the planet could fit into the state of Texas if Texas were settled as densely as New York City" Growth Rate • Growth Rate of the world is equal to: Birth Rate - Death Rate = Natural Increase • Growth Rate of a country is eq ual to: (Birth Rate - Death Rate) + (Immigration Rate - Emigration Rate) = Natural Increase + Social Movement • Is the growth faster in developed or developing countries? o Developing countries o 99 percent of the next 1 billion people will live in developing n ations • Currently, is the world's growth rate increasing? Is the world's population increasing? o The population is increasing but the growth rate is slowing down o More developed regions have a significantly lower growth rate than less developed regions The Demographic Transition Model • Stage 1 - Preindustrial o High birth rates o High death rates • Stage 2 - Boom Begins o High birth rate o Declining death rate • Stage 3 - Still Rising o Declining birth rates o Declining death rates • Stage 4 - Leveling Off o Low birth rates o Low death rates • Stage 5 o High death rates o Low birth rates • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) When discussing the population growth, we often talk about the TFR: the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime • Factors related to Fertility Rates o Infant/child mortality o Workforce not in the primary activities • Agricultural sector versus service sector o Female education • Lower total fertility rate when higher rate of female enrollment in school o Personal income o Use of birth control Consumption Wednesday, October 5, 2016 9:21 AM • Number of humans on earth • Patterns of human population growth over time • Which countries have the largest populations? • The demographic transition: factors in each stage • Growth Rate o Equations o Fastest in developing or develo ped nations? o Speeding up or slowing down for the planet? • Fertility Rate o Factors related to fertility rate o Ways to reduce fertility rate (and slow growth rate) • Negative Correlation: Female secondary school enrollment increases as the total fertility rate decreases • Positive Correlation Decline in Fertility Rate • Sub-Saharan Africa still have a high fertility rate • Other regions have a declining fertility rate but developing countries still have higher rates than developed countries. • Replacement Fertility Rate : 2.1 o Parents have two children, then the second generation of people replace the parents • Investing in family planning, health care and educ ation of women Comparing China and Thailand • They began at a very similar rate and followed the same trajectory • China One-Child Policy o China brought down their population very quickly by implementing the one child policy o One-child rewards • Better access to schools, medical care, housing, jobs o Penalties: • Social scorn, employment, discrimination, fines o Abolished in 2015 • Now a 2 child policy Thailand Population Story • Increased contraceptive use • Decreased total fertility rate • Population and Community Development Association (PDA) o Humor to promote family planning o Condoms available everywhere, and other birth control promoted as well Human Dimension of Environmental Studies • UN Population Projection Perspectives on Population Growth • Perspective 1: WORRY • 1798 Thomas Malthus: An Essay on the Principle of Population § Industrial Revolution § Food production can only increase in a linear way but population growth is increasing exponentially § When those two lines intersect, resources have run out which will cause war and famine. • 1968 Paul Ehrlich: The Population Bomb § Hundreds of millions of people will starve to death, and it's too late to fix it o Overpopulation will: • Deplete resources and degrade environment • Lead to disease, famine, war and misery o Programs to reduce fertility rates and st abilize human population • Perspective 2: OPTIMISIM • 1981 Julian Simon: The Ultimate Resource o Human minds and skills are world's ultimate resource base • Believe population growth is a stimulus to development • Human ingenuity and technology will expand the world 's carrying capacity How many people can the Earth support? • It depends not just on population size but also on what kinds of resources we use and how we use them. It depends on our environmental impact • IPAT equation (I=PAT) o I impact on environment o P population o A affluence or standard of living o T technology used to produce the goods and services we consume Ecological Footprint • One way to estimate environmental impact • Consumption expressed as a single number • The average ecological footprint of the ent ire world is 1.5 Earths • Average of US: 5 Earths • Our consumption of resources is different in each country • The Tom Knudsen article, Shifting the Pain, suggests that preserving wild lands is not enough, we also have to reduce consumption. • California is doing a great job protecting their natural resources, but they are still consuming and the affects of the imported resources is putting the environmental costs elsewhere. Why is Consumption so High? • Work-spend culture • Disposable society • Planned obsolescence • Perceived obsolescence Extraction-Production-Distribution-Consumption-Disposal • Planned Obsolescence o Designed for the dump o Disposable products as well as items that could only last for a short time • Perceived Obsolescence o Consumers throw away perfectly useful items because something "better" or more fashionable comes along Waste Friday, October 7, 2016 9:23 AM Human Consumption Review • Population policies: examples from China and Thailand • Human population growth curve from 1950 to 2050. • Perspectives on population growth (Malthus, Ehrlich, Simon) • I =PAT equation • Ecological footprint: what it calculates? Global patterns and inequalities • Patterns of consumption worldwide • Planned vs. perceived obsolescence o Planned Obsolescence • Designed for the dump • Disposable products as well as items that could only last for a short time o Perceived Obsolescence • Consumers throw away perfectly useful items because something "better" or more fashionable comes along • Last step of the materials economy: disposal Where does all this waste go? • Municipal Solid Waste • Recycling • E-waste • Possible Solutions EPA's Classification of Solid Waste • Non-Hazardous Waste o Municipal solid waste • Waste that comes out of our households o Industrial Waste • Construction & demolition materi als • Special wastes • Medical wastes • CO2 streams • Hazardous waste: liquid, solid, contained gas, or sludge wastes that contain properties that are dangerous Municipal Solid Waste • Total Municipal Solid Waste: 2013: 254 Million tons (before recycling) • Generation Rates • Every year, Americans create 254 million tons of trash and 167 million tons end up in landfills and incinerators. • How can we reduce the amount that goes into the landfill? o You can reduce the material you use which r educes the amount of waste you create o Reuse materials when possible and recycle when possible o Rethink the materials you use and those you throw away. o By thinking about what we're using and how to reduce the waste we produce, we can help create a cleaner, healthier environment. • Where does MSW go in Seattle? o Landfill: 300 miles away in Arlington, Oregon • Roughly 1,000 tons of garbage get rucked to the South Transfer Station and then shipped to a landfill in Oregon. • Six days a week, all year long, adding up fo r a grand total of more than 300,000 tons of garbage each year. o Compost: 35 miles away in Everett - Cedar Grove Composting o Recycling: Various facilities • Many recycled products are shipped over seas for processing • In Reign of Recycling, paper and aluminum cans are the most efficient for recycling. The Recycling Industry • Recycling is an industry, not just a public service. • Private companies pick up your recycling, sort it, sell it (to companies around the country and the world). o Recycling (aluminum cans) vs. Downcycling (Plastic bottles) • Recycling is a very labor intensive activity • The downside of promoting recycling, is that we're focusing on the wrong concepts o Waste reduction is more important to consider • The author of "The Reign of Recycling" argues that t he reason why many public officials are promoting higher recycling rates is because recycling is the moral thing to do and appeals to many voters.


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