CJUS 2100 Week 3 Notes
CJUS 2100 Week 3 Notes Cjus 2100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Cjus 2100 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Peter Johnstone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see US Crime/ Justice in CJUS at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
CJUS 2100- Crime & Justice in the United States Chapter 3: Origins of Modern Policing Intro o Those nations that adhere to civil law principles tend towards a military or quasi-military form of policing with armed officers who look and feel like military personnel. These police are normally highly centralized and may answer to a ministry of the interior or to the Ministry of Defense. Frequently the officers live in barracks and have a rigid, hierarchical rank structure. o Police officers under the common law model tend to be local and de-centralized; they may or may not carry a weapon and they are answerable to a combination of local interests and a minister. They rarely if ever live in barracks. The value of this model is believed to be that the people serving are part of the community they serve. Early Days: Sheriffs, Constables and Night Watchmen o In America, the English criminal justice lexicon- sheriff, constable, ‘Hue and Cry’, magistrates, justices of the peace, circuit judges and a concept of what it means to ‘police’- are all largely, but not exclusively, informed by England. o Over time the responsibilities of the shire-reeve, the sheriff, increased and his role developed into, inter alia, that of tax collector, jailer, and court administrator. The task of securing felons and then holding them until the arrival of a court was a responsibility assigned to the sheriff from the period of Alfred the Great. o King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215. This document contains 63 clauses, 27 of which relate to the role and functions of the sheriff. o The first person to hold the office of sheriff in America was William Stone in 1634 in the County of Accomack, Virginia. o One visible policing aspect of being sheriff was the ability to require that local citizens assist in the apprehension of offenders. In terms of policing models, the sheriff is one of the only examples of centralized policing ever to occur in England. o The “Sun King” Louis XIV reigned in France from 1643 to 1715. He was renowned for his work on legal reform largely instituted and executed by his minister Jean Baptiste Colbert. In October 1666, Louis ordered Colbert to design a plan for a Paris police force. By March of 1667, Louis authorized the creation of the office of Prefect of Police for Paris followed in 1669 by a royal degree that authorized the establishment of Prefecture of Police for each major city in France. o By 1778, there was 1 police officer for every 193 residents of Paris. o As “the man who would restore order to a society plagued by crime, violence and uncertainty”, Napoleon created a military police force that was copied throughout continental Europe. Introducing the word “Police” o In 1792, the Middlesex Justices Act created the est. of a police office within London. o In 1800, the British govt. endorsed the private policing enterprise and a Police Bill was passed to formalize and make public policing of the River Thames. The main proponents of the bill were John Harriot, Patrick Colquhan, and Jeremy Bentham. Sir Robert Peel o Peel was promoted to Chief Secretary for Ireland in September 1812. His responsibilities inc. the maintenance of law and order in the country, and to this effect he was responsible for the Peace Preservation Act 1814, which est. the Irish Peace Preservation Force, a forerunner to the Royal Irish Constabulary of 1822. o Peel left Ireland with the blueprint for a Common Law Gendarmerie that was to be exported around the globe to almost every former British colony. o A detective unit was not est. in London until 1842. French Detectives o Vidocq was a pioneer in detective techniques. Not only did he utilize handwriting, paper, and ink analyses to solve cases, but he also foresaw the day when fingerprints would be used to identify suspects. o Vidocq’s impact traversed the Atlantic and Vidocq is credited with inspiring Allan Pinkerton and J. Edgar Hoover. o There are 2 dates associated with the introduction of plain clothed detectives in London: 1842 & 1878. st o The 1 attempts to run an effective unit were plagued by allegations of corruption and scandal culminating in the “trial of the detectives” in 1877. Colonial Policing in America o There is a collective agreement among a # of authors that early policing methods were drawn from the est. roles of the sheriffs, constables, Hue & Cry, night watchmen, vigilantes, and ‘watch and ward’ along with the wide and varied assortment of criminal justice law enforcement officials that had developed over the previous 1600 years, mostly from England. o The English societies never operated outside of the law, whereas the American dev. Into vigilante groups frequently did. o Narrowing the parameters of the word to Peel’s application may indeed have been for the English a way of circumventing something overtly French, but the early role of the police constable in America carried a very broad portfolio of responsibilities for more closely resembling a “sergeant de ville” than a “Bobby”. o Those of the American sheriff expanded to inc. not only the apprehension of criminals, but also the conducting of elections, the collection of taxes, and the custody of public funds. Private Policing & the Emergence of State Troopers o America also adopted private policing. This was due in part to the slow dev. Of city and statewide policing responses as well as due to the expansion of railroads, industry, and commerce that sought to protect its own interests often in the face of worker unrest and labor disputes. o By the end of the 19 century, Alan Pinkerton, “the Vidocq of the West”, and other private police agencies found it opportune to transition from personal protection to property protection. o In 1905, the Pennsylvania state governor, Samual Pennypacker, signed senate bill 278 into law. This legislation created the 1 statewide police agency in America, the Pennsylvania State Constabulary. City Policing in America o By 1845, New York had abandoned its previous system of watchmen and adopted a London-style municipal police force. It was the 1 outside of the British empire. Officers did not wear a uniform, simply a copper badge, and very soon they exchanged truncheons for firearms. But it was not the external appearance of the officers that denoted fundamental differences; it was the exercise of power. Questions o Over time, the responsibilities of the shire-reeve increased and his role developed into, inter alia, those of: Tax collector, jailer, and court administrator o This first person to hold the office of sheriff in America was William Stone in 1634 in: The County of Accomack, Virginia o In October 1666, Louis XIV ordered _____ to design a plan for a Paris police force. Colbert o By 1788 there was 1 police officer for every 193 residents of Paris. True o In 1892, the Middlesex Justices Act created the establishment of a police office within London. False o The official title of the Bow Street Runners was: Principal Officer of Bow Street o On Tuesday September 29, 1829, the first uniformed officers of the London Metropolitan Police commenced evening patrol across the metropolis except for: The City of London (the Square Mile) o “A lower type of man, yet still a great name in the history of French police… who began his career as a thief.” This statement describes the detective Eugene Vidocq o “We will not make men justices, constables, sheriffs, or bailiffs, unless they are such as known the law of the realm, and are minded to observe it rightly.” This statement is taken from: The Magna Carta o Military police have existed in France since: 1337
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