Honors American Government: Civil Rights
Honors American Government: Civil Rights PSCI 1041
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by mosesnui Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 1041 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Bethany Blackstone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Civil Rights Protects Individuals from discrimination by government and other people. Derived from equal th protection clause of 14 amendment. Civil Rights is all about when government CANNOT treat people differently. Procedural equalityeveryone has the same opportunity Substantive equalityeveryone has the same outcome Discriminateto treat different people/things differently. The constitution only prohibits “invidious” discrimination, meaning discrimination with no rational reasoning. 3 types of Supreme Court review Strict: for race, ethnicity, religion, national origin (best for individuals) Intermediate/Heightened: for sex Rational Basis/Minimum Rationality: all other categories (best for government) Intermediate test created in 1970s Civil Rights for Blacks 1. 1788Constitution ratified, not much equality for blacks 1807Importation of slaves prohibited 1820Missouri Compromise: Northern states can't have slaves 1850Fugitive Slave Act: government must help capture fugitive slaves 1860Lincoln elected 2. Civil War happens (not Marvel movith. Ather that,th Reconstruction (18651877): 14 , 15 , and 16 amendments passed. 3. Jim Crow Era (18771960s): New Laws to obstruct civil rights Poll taxes, literacy tests, Grandfather clauses, White primaries, Jim Crow Laws (segregation) The Civil Rights Cases (1883) Invalidated Civil Rights Act of 1865 Federal government couldn't tell private people not to segregate Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Upheld Jim Crow Laws, “separate but equal” 4. Early/Mid 20 century Blacks big part of New Deal, Integration of military (1948), Changing of Supreme Court makeup Brown v. Board of Education Challenged segregation in schools Overturned “separate but equal” Compliance was a big problem. Local school boards had to implement it. They didn't. Supreme court wanted it done with “All deliberate speed” Southern interpretation: “As slow as you can” Finally happened when Government threatened to take away funds (1965) 5. Civil Rights Movement Civil Rights Act of 1964 Outlawed discrimination in voting Upheld by Heart of Atlanta Hotel v. U.S. Voting Rights Act of 1965 Prohibits racial discrimination in voting th Congress says article 2 of 15 amendment gives them power to enforce it Upheld by South Carolina v. Katzenbach (1965) Sex and Equality 1. Timeline 1860sSufferage Movement Started 1870s1920 th 15 amendment did not apply to women Supreme Court ruled citizenship did not equal voting Women still made progress in some states th 19 amendmentextends vote to women 2. Other forms of discrimination Equal pay Equal Rights Amendment (not ratified) Laws based on protectionist view of women Older Supreme Court cases defined sexual harassment very narrowly