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CDS Language Disorders

by: Chelsea Curry

CDS Language Disorders CDS 101

Chelsea Curry


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These notes detail what we learned in class Thursday and Monday about language related disorders and their causes.
Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders
Dr. Hockenberger
Class Notes
slp, speech, Language, disorders
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Curry on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDS 101 at Geneva College taught by Dr. Hockenberger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication Sciences and Disorders in Speech and Communications at Geneva College.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Language Disorders in Early and Later Childhood ➔ Introduction ◆ A small but consequential portion of children have a language disorder ● First year of life: delays in obtaining critical language precursors ● Toddler and preschool: slow to achieve important language milestones ● School-age: struggle with academic skills that rely on language proficiency ● Adulthood: ongoing challenges in living and working ◆ What is a language Disorder? ● “Significant and persistent difficulties with the comprehension and/or expression of a spoken, written, and/ or other symbol systems. The disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonology, morphology and syntax), (2) the content of language, or (3) the use of language in communication” ◆ Additional Considerations ● Social, Psychological and Educational Impact: Does a child’s language performance have a negative impact on her ability to function in society? ● Language Disorder vs. Language Differences: Cultural contexts, expected performances ◆ Prevalence and Incidence ● Common type of communication impairment affecting children ● Most frequent cause for early intervention and special education services ◆ Primary and Secondary language impairments ➔ Classification ◆ Etiology ● Primary language impairment: language difficulties in the absence of another disorder ● Secondary language impairment: Consequences of another disorder, mental disability, brain injury, etc ● Acquired: acquired after birth from injury ◆ Manifestation ● Comprehension and Expression ○ Comprehension disorder ○ Expressive disorder ○ Mixed receptive-expressive disorder ● Form, Content, and Use ○ Form ○ Content ○ Use ○ Focal (only one domain) ○ Diffuse ( multiple domains affected) ◆ Reading and Writing ● Children are highly susceptible to these difficulties ● Three classifications ○ Dyslexia ○ Reading comprehension disorder ○ Mixed ◆ Severity ● Ranges from mild to profound ● Mild: relatively low impact on a child’s ability to function at home or school ● Profound: may have no language skill at all and therefore may be severely limited in ability to participate in activities at home, school, or in the community ➔ Prevalent types of language Disorders ◆ Specific language impairment- expressive or receptive language that cannot be attributed to any other cause ◆ Typically Diagnosed SLI after their third birthday ● Rule out “late talkers” ◆ Diverse group- one area of problem or some or all areas of language ◆ Characteristics of SLI ● Inconsistent skills across different domain ● Slow vocabulary development ● Problems with word finding ● Difficulties with grammatical production and comprehension, especially verbs ● Problems with social skills, behavior, and attention ● May persist overtime (“learning disability”) ◆ Causes and Risk Factors ● No known cause for SLI, recent studies show a genetic component ● Risk factors ○ Sensory deprivation due to environmental conditions ○ Biological factors (frequent ear infections, otitis media) ○ Physical health challenges due to perinatal and postnatal influences ◆ Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) ● An umbrella term describing a variety of developmental conditions that are characterized by difficulties in social interactions, communication, repetitive behaviors, and overly restricted interests ● Affects an estimated 1 in 88 children ● Boys are 4 times more likely to be affected ○ Girls tend to have more severe symptoms ● Recent changes in criteria for diagnosing ASD ○ Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders include the following four conditions must be met: ◆ Symptoms emerge during childhood ● Difficulty participating in conversation ● Fixed interest ● Repetition ● Hyperawareness to sensations ◆ Symptoms must affect everyday functioning ◆ Symptoms must include problems with social communication and social interaction ● Organic brain abnormality ● MMR vaccination: research does not support the claim ● Several Risk Factors ○ Prenatal and perinatal complications (maternal reubella, anoxia) ○ Developmental and physical disabilities (Encephalitis, fragile X syndrome) ○ Chromosomal disorders (fragile X syndrome, retts)


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