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GY 208 September 29th

by: Madison Smith

GY 208 September 29th GY 208

Madison Smith
Jacksonville State University
GPA 3.25

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About this Document

Map projections
Map Reading
Larry J. Morgan, Daniel Mcgowan
Class Notes
geography, maps, projections
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Smith on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 208 at Jacksonville State University taught by Larry J. Morgan, Daniel Mcgowan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Map Reading in Geography at Jacksonville State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
GY 208 9/29/16 Map Projection • A geometrical transformation of the Earth’s spherical/ellipsoid surface transferred onto a flat surface Developable Surface • A surface that can be flattened onto a plane without geometrical distortion MAP PROJECTION PROPERTIES 1. Scale a. Points and line of tangency b. Actual scale – scale that is measure at any point or line on the map c. Principal scale – scale that’s generated when we create a map from the generating globe (whatever globe is used to make the map from) d. Scale Factor (SF) i. Ration between actual and principal scale ii. SF of 1 means no distortions and everything is “true” Actual scale ---------------------- = SF Principal scale 2. Completeness a. The ability of a map projection to show the whole world 3. Corresponding Relations a. A point on the globe is a point on the map b. Sometimes points become lines 4. Continuity a. Connecting sides of the earth b. Lost when flattened - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - MAP PROJECTION FAMILIES • Based on geometric distortion (what they protect) 1. Distance a. Equidistant b. Try to preserve great circle distance (impossible for every point on the map – only on point of tangency or centered focus) 2. Shape a. If all meridians and parallels meet at 90* then shape is preserved b. “conformal” 3. Direction a. Indicated by a straight line 4. Area/Size a. Equivalent b. Comes at expense of shape on small scale maps c. Impossible to conserve shape and size in all place on small scale maps - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - FAMILIES BASED ON MAP PROJECTION SURFACES 1. Planar – sphere touches map surface; touching plane at one point a. Orthographic – light goes out in infinity; just one point way beyond b. Stereographic – light source on opposite side of tangency c. Gnomonic – light in center of earth; goes outward 2. Cylindrical – touches a line around the earth a. “line of tangency” b. 2 types of light sources used i. central – light in middle of earth, poles are lost ii. equal/area projection – around axis of earth in middle of cylinder 3. Conic a. One light projection (central) b. One will touch a line, usually mid latitude - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - MAP PROJECTION PARAMETERS Surface Contact • Where the surfaces make contact with the generating globe • Secant approach – when surface cuts through the generating globe • Tangent – touching • Secant – slices through Planar Projection Aspect (location at point of tangency) • Equatorial – point of tangency on equator (usually cylindrical) • Oblique – point of tangency anywhere else (usually conic) • Polar – point of tangency on pole (mostly planar, normal projection) MAP GRAPHICS USED ARE NOT MINE, WERE FOUND ON GOOGLE TO REPLACE MY SKETCHES


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