KHP200 week 7
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Merrill on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KHP 200 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. Jill Day in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
KHP200 Week 7 notes 10/3/16 Motor Performance (skill) related Fitness 6 components o agility o balance o coordination—ability to use different body parts simultaneously o power—can you transfer something at a fast rate o strength—ability to actually lift o reaction time o speed different activities require a different emphasis Fitness conditioning differences between Gymnastics? Power, coordination, balance, speed Football? Agility, reaction time, coordination, power Tennis? Power, coordination Golf? Balance, power Cosmetic Fitness People differ in their reasons for desiring fitness Cultural norms differ and change over time relative to fitness, appearance Can pose risk of eating disorders “cult of slenderness” The Dose-Response Debate Focuses on the question: What “dose” of exercise is necessary to achieve the beneficial health “responses”? “Exercise epidemiology” studies the relationship of physical activity to all causes of mortality Inverse and linear relationship—more active you are, less chance of dying of illness The FITT formula Can be applied to all components of health-fitness o Frequency—how often o Intensity—how much you do o Time o Type Its application differs based on a person’s fitness goals, health status, and age U.S.D.H.H.S. PA guidelines for children and youth Role of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness Social gradient in health—higher social status=better health Traditional view of fitness o Viewed as a responsibility of the individual Socio-ecological view of fitness o Both an individual and social issue o Goal: increase access to safe, affordable, and inclusive opportunities to pursue a physically active lifestyle for all Fitness-Training Concepts and Principles General Training Principles: F.I.T.T. formula should be applied using o Specificity o Progressive overload o Recovery time 10/5/16 Health-Fitness Training Targets all health-fitness components: o CV Endurance o Muscular strength o Flexibility High intensity activities are a turn-off for most people Types of Aerobic Training Continuous training Interval training Anaerobic Training Short duration exercise (with intervals of rest) without taxing the aerobic (O2) energy system Strength Training Programs vary the following variables: o Amount of resistance per lift o # of reps per set o # of sets per workout o # of workouts per week Muscular endurance vs muscular strength o Endurance = reps high, resistance low Flexibility Essential (but often neglected) component Static flexibility—staying in one place Dynamic flexibility—moving Recommendation: 3 times per week after the main activity The Measurement of Fitness and Physical Activity Considerable debate on the merits of different methods What makes a fitness program effective… o …for a soccer player? o …for a golfer? o …for you? It depends on the goal… o …performance? o …looks? o …health? FITNESSGRAM the most complete program for formally assessing health related fitness and physical activity components o aerobic capacity o body composition o abdominal strength/endurance o upper body strength/endurance o flexibility Methods of reporting test results: Norm-referenced scoring: o Score is reported relative to that of the performance of the larger group of peers Criterion-references scoring: o Score is reported relative to a criterion (standard) believed to produce health benefits or reduced risk of health problems Zones of interpretation: o Use fitness-performance or physical activity data to understand whether you are At risk for hypokinetic disease At a level that will contribute to health, or At a level necessary for some athletic performance Measuring Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) Options o Heart rate monitor o Accelerometer o Pedometer o Activity gram o Estimate caloric expenditure (METS) Acceptable reasons to fitness testing in schools: Fundamental part of fitness instruction Should be used to assess the quality of fitness instruction and student learning All students should be able to meet health-related fitness standards Informal Measurement of Fitness Take heart rate during exercise Take heart rate after exercise to determine recovery Keep track of distance and time for the same kind of exercise 10/7/16 CHAPTER 8 Introduction National policy perspective: Health-related fitness is the most important aspect of entire fitness movement Healthy People 2000 / 2010 / 2020: o 300 health objectives in 22 priority areas, first of which was “physical activity and fitness” Healthy People 2010’s two overarching goals increase the years of healthy life for all people eliminate health disparities based on race, gender, and income Healthy People 2020’s four primary goals improve health, fitness and quality of life through daily physical activity Fitness Levels Among Children and Youth Mid-1950s: American children far behind European peers in fitness performance NCYFS I and II (1985, 1987) results not encouraging Findings questioned by Corbin & Pangrazi Shift in fitness perspective from high level performance to energy expenditure for health benefits Two key problem performance areas o Body composition o Cardiovascular endurance Shift from norm-referenced to criterion-referenced tests PA and obesity levels tend to track o If you’re an obese child you’re more likely to be an obese adult Shift in perspective o Viewed as personal responsibility to build environment Barriers of participation in PA o Money, time, work, transportation Publication of recommended PA levels Activity Patterns Among Children and Youth Assessing PA o Fit Bit, pedometer What evidence is there? o Children’s self-reports: 90 percent or more are active at levels required for health benefits differs markedly from observational studies What do we know: o Heart rates of children throughout the day show that most are sufficiently active to meet the ACSM’s recommended levels for adults o Many children do not get regular physical education from a specialist teacher o Many only accumulate 2 min of vigorous activity during physical education o Over 34% of children are overweight or obese (higher % in girls and minorities) o About half of adolescents report regular vigorous physical activity: 25% report none o Just over 20% of adolescents report participation in physical education 1 or more days per week o Daily physical activity drops significantly in HS
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