Western Art Week 6 Notes
Western Art Week 6 Notes ART 225-02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by THeller97 on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 225-02 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Pitluga, Kurt W in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Overview of Western Art in Art History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
CHAPTER 12: GOTHIC ART 1140-1500 Decline of feudalism: Rise of Cities ● Other employment opportunities rise for peasants ● Cities become dominated by cathedrals ● Cult of the Virgin ○ Like Cult of the Saints ○ Virgin Mary takes on role by ensuring path to heaven when visited ○ Much of the cathedrals are dedicated to the Virgin Mary ○ Gothic Churches emphasize vertical vaults ○ Artisans who worked on churches remain anonymous tools of god ● Elements of Gothic Construction ○ AKA: Skeletal ○ Organic architecture ■ Consistent, natural growth ○ Wanted as much stained glas as possible ○ Pointed Arch ■ Most obvious structure used in gothic architecture ■ Much more efficient arch for driving pressure of vaults down ○ Ribbed groin vault ■ Stone frame built for vault ■ Used very light brick to relieve weight ○ Flying buttress ■ Structural component that takes weight and pressure off wall and carries to exterior piers ■ placed where arch starts to bend ■ Romanesque churches DO NOT have flying buttresses ● Abbot Sugar of St. Denis ○ Wrote about spiritual quality of light ○ Light is transformed into spiritual, mystical light from the heavens ○ Overwhelmed the illiterate peasant ● “Cathedral of Notre Dame” 1145-1513 Chartres, France ○ Only cathedral in western europe to retain all stained glass windows ○ Popular relic: Veil of the Virgin ■ What Mary wore during the birth of Christ ○ Took generations to build ○ Social centers, business, plays and musicals, and services were performed in cathedrals ○ Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière ■ Our lady of the beautiful window ○ Rose Windows ■ Floral pattern done in stained glass ○ Traceries ■ Delicate stone bars holding glass in place ○ Royal Portals ■ Renewed interest in human form and naturalism ● Jamb Statues ○ Location of statues on side of doors ○ Depict kings and queens of heaven ○ South Transept ■ Also became major entrances to church ■ Jamb figures ● Saint Theodore ○ Knight ○ Naturalism ○ Sense of personality with facial features ○ Suggestion of contrapposto ■ Gargoyles ● Evil spirits fleeing good of the church ● Start as water spouts ● Gets name from gurgling water from water spouts on building roofs ● Place where carver could let imagination take over by creating demonic characters Black Death - 1348 ● Wiped out ⅔ of population of western Europe ● “The Triumph of Death” ○ Aristocrats fleeing city ○ Monk with scroll stating God’s warning and retribution for material lives and to dedicate life to christianity. ○ Accumulation of wealth after plague Early Renaissance in 15th Century Italy Florence, Italy ● Birth place of the Renaissance ● Cathedral of Florence is largest cathedral in Florence ● Medici Family ○ Became great patrons of the arts ○ Started in wool trade and then into banking ○ Interest in classical past ○ Humanism ■ Belief on the dignity and worth of the individual and the human potential for achievement ○ The humanities ■ History, philosophy, rhetoric, grammar, poetry ○ Revive classical forms and join with christianity ○ Collected any architecture, fragments of sculpture, etc. of classical artworks ● Vitruvius ○ “Ten Books of Architecture” ○ 1st BC ○ Roman ○ The only book on ancient roman architecture to survive ● Giorgio Vasari ○ The Lives of the Artists, published 1550 ○ “The first art historian” ● Brunelleschi ○ Responsible for reviving classical forms of architecture ○ “San Lorenzo” 1421-1469 ■ Family church for Medici family ■ Crossing ● Where nave and transept cross ● Used to break down proportions for rest of church ● 2:1 ■ Pietra Serena ● Beautiful Stone ○ Designed for Medici family ○ Discovery of Linear Perspective ■ Vanishing Point where all lines meet on horizontal line ■ Allow artist to create illusion of space in paintings ● Masaccio (1401-1428) ○ Translates to “Ugly Tom” ○ Holy Trinity fresco c. 1424-1427 ○ Inventor of the “Great Manner” ■ Reviving the bold idealism of ancient Roman painting ○ First painting of the renaissance to incorporate linear perspective ○ Pyramidal structure in paintings ○ Fresco ■ Painting on wet plaster ■ Very unforgiving medium ■ Work on small portions at any given time ○ The Tribute Money c. 1424-1427 ■ For Brancacci Chapel ■ “Atmospheric perspective” ● Background creates a very deep space ○ Uses cool colors for mountains, trees, etc. ■ New testament story ● Selected to encourage people of Florence to pay their taxes ○ “The Expulsion” ● Chiaroscuro ○ ● Donatello 1430-1432 ○ ○ ● Michelozzo ○ ● Antonio Pollaiuolo c.1431-1498 ○ ○ ● Mantegna ○ ○ ● Lorenzo Ghiberti ○ ○ ■ Classical setting ■ Uses both low relief and very high relief ■ Incorporates linear perspective and atmospheric perspective ■ Referred to as “Painter in Bronze” ● Leon Battista Alberti ○ Jack of all trades ■ Painting ■ Sculpture ■ Architecture ○ “S. Andrea” c. 1470 Mantua ■ First church of the renaissance to incorp riumphal Arch Motif ■ Pilaster ■ First church of renaissance to use large barrel vault ○ Wrote “Ten Books of Architecture” c. 1485 ■ Modeled after Vitruvius ■ Believed in circular plan for churches ○ Composite Plan ■ Combination of centralized and basilica plan
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