Week 9 Herbs Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affecter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Week 9 Notes for HORT 3440 CRN10344 Monday: Latin American Caribbean Studies Institute • History of the garden; discussion of ethnobtany; focus on Maya enthobotany • Selection of Latin American Ethnobotanically important species suitable for North Georgia Perennial gardens The Columbian exchange: Movement of Plants Around the world post discovery: 15 and 16 century Ethnobotany: how people use plants Maya International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (Maya ICBG) 1998-2001 • NIH/NSF funded UGA project to carry out medical ethnobiology, drug discovery (find out how indigenous people use plants and potentially find cures) • 1) determining the efficacy of the most important plants employed in Maya herbal medicine and 2) developing alternative income generation opportunities for highland maya communities • Also, potentially could create some income opportunity for the Maya people Medical Ethnobiology of the Highland Chiapas Maya Extreme poverty and resource scarcity is the norm among many rural subsistence farm families Traditional Maya healers (Curenderos) consider two realities in treating illnesses: • Naturalistic (visible) reality- where the treatment is based on clear-cut and apparent symptoms and treated with medicinal plants. Highly sophisticated traditional knowledge based on generations of empirical experimentations • Personalistic (nonvisible) reality- illness requires intervention by healers with superpowers. Treatment may involve ceremonial healing rituals or special prayers (can be human or god give, soul or spirit problems, fright (susto)-soul scared out of body) Warm, cold, bitter, caustic, astringent, sour Of the 9,000 plants known in Chiapas, 13% are weeds. 35% of the plants they use for meds are weeds. Why? (because weeds are everywhere) The compounds that weeds use to keep things from eating them have properties that may be medicinal UGA Latin American Ethnobotanical Garden: • Provide space for research of plants used medicinally by the highland Chiapas Maya • Enhance public’s knowledge of LAC region through ethnobotany • Promote preservation of traditional knowledge of region Tageted lucida: Mexican marigold • Native to southern Mexico • Flavors chocolatl drink • Used to treat fever and nausea • Black licorice scent Opuntia: prickly pear • Used for thousands of years in Mexico • Used to treat diabetes, lower cholesterol • Binding agent for bricks • It’s on the national flag of Mexico Mexican milkweed • That’s where the monarch butterflies feed • Self seeds • Links plants, insects, and culture • Used to treat skin conditions Epazote • Used to flavor food (beans) and cure stomach issues. Stops gas from eating beans • Kills intestinal worms Aloysia triphylla • Smells like lemon • Makes you happy when you drink it Poliomintha (Mexican oregano) • Used as oregano like spice in salsas Salvia: mexican bush sage • Used to treat low blood sugar • Salvia elegans: pineapple sage Illex paraguayensis: Yerba Mate • Caffeine Lantana camera • Used as a diharetic and to reduce fevers Agave • Tequila • Also used as a diharetic Wednesday: Once herbs and medicinal plants have been brought into cultivation, they can be manipulated in two general ways Genetically (selection and breeding, direct genetic modification, etc.) Environmentally (fertilization, light intensity, irrigation, etc.) The process is illustrated by research carried out at Purdue University by horticultural scientists working to develop new cultivars of Basil Goals of the Basil research program were to develop new genetic lines with: • Increase the total essential oil content • Increased content of cinnamon scented oils of interest to the perfume industry (methyl chavicol and methyl cinnamate) Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, Mint family • Annual herb, cultivated for at least 3,000 years • Native to tropical regions throughout Africa, Middle East, India, Indonesia • Part used: leaves • Culinary herb; traditional medicine as a tonic, carminative, diuretic, and anthelmentic The essential oil composition of basil species is extremely variable, which makes them good candidates for development and selection of new “chemotypes” (chemical races, not necessarily morphologically distinguishable) Essential oils that are commonly present in sweet basil include: Ilinolook (slight licorice fragrance) Methyl chavicol (cinnamon scented) Eugenol (clove) But many other essential oils are also present in variable amounts The Purdue researchers obtained seeds of 87 Ocimum accessions from the USDA Plant Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa. An “accession” is a documented element in a collection (known provenance) These accessions were all field grown in a trial garden or “common garden” in central Indiana. About 50 of the accessions germinated Development of the new Basil cultivators involved three steps 1. Evaluation (initial screening) 2. Selection (and more intensive evaluation) 3. Breeding (and continued evaluation) (of chemotypes with new combinations of characteristics) Organoleptic means evaluation something using your senses Tifton Mint Study • Dr. Dean Batal, UGA Horticulture Department • Tested 8 different mini cultivars • Used 4 different soil amendment treatments • 3 cultivars had significantly higher yields • Addition of mushroom compost increased yield (biomass) Friday: Herbal Teas o Water extracts o Easy to prepare but relatively short-lived; infusions should be used the same day, decoctions within 48 hours o If using fresh herbs, use twice the amount as dried to get the same potency Infusions work best for leaf and flower materials that yield their chemicals fairly regularly; start with boiling water and steep the dried or fresh herbs until the liquid is cool enough to drink (traditional tea bags are infusions) Decoctions are used to extract chemicals from more stout materials, like roots and twigs. Place the material in water and simmer 20-30 minutes, until the liquid is reduced by 1/3 Tinctures and Elixirs o Made by steeping herbs in drinkable alcohol (ethanol); vodka, rum, wine o You can make non-alcoholic versions using glycerin or vinegar as the solvent o Alcohol is a stronger solvent than water, giving tinctures a stronger action than infusions or decoctions o Tinctures have a shelf-life up to two years (less of elixirs) Let herbs stand in alcohol 10-14 days, shaking occasionally Strain out the plant material Store in dark-colored bottles in a cool, dark place Tinctures are often diluted in water or fruit juice for consumption Elixers are prepared in a similar fashion, then refrigerated; less alcohol is used so the extraction is less powerful; elixers are typically sweet tasting and don’t need to be diluted Capsules o Convenient and useful for herbs that taste bad (e.g. valerian) o Contain dried herbs that have been ground to a fine poweder, or liquid extracts o Commercial preparations are best because the heat of grinding can degrade the chemicals in the herbs Poultices and compresses o For external use o A poultice is a wad of chopped up plant material applied directly to a wound or infection on the skin o Used to ease nerve or muscle pains, sprains; draws pus from infected wounds o Usually held in place by a bandage o Herb is softened (by boiling, steaming, chewing, pounding) to help release the chemicals Compresses o Clean cloths that have been dipped in an herbal solution (e.g. infusion, decoction, tincture) o They can be placed directly on the skin, or can be used to hold a poultice in place o Treat swelling, bruising, headaches, used to soothe fevers o Warm mint or lavender compress for acne Ointments and Creams o Ointments contain oils or fats heated with herbs o Contain no water so they form a separate layer on the surface of the skin o Useful where protection from molecules is needed (chapped lips, diper rash) o Creams combine oils or fats with water in an emulsion o Unlike ointments, creams blend with the skin o Feel cooling and soothing while allowing skin to breathe and sweat naturally Essential Oils o Extremely concentrated (not for oral use) o Sniff directly; mix with oils for massage; dissolve in bath water o Can be absorbed through the skin (lavender breath!) o For income or stress, try adding lavender and lemon balm to your bathwater Back to herb cabinet: Gingko, Gingko biloba, Gingko family o Tree native to China, fossils 200 million years old o Part used: leaf (doesn’t have a fruit) (looks like a flat fan shaped leaf) (the female trees have bad smelling fruits) (seeds used to treat asthma) o Its dioecious (separate male and female trees) o Improves circulation, memory, cognitive function o Cautions: may interact with MAO inhibitors Gotu Kola, Centella asiatica, Carrot family o Herbaceous, creeping perennial o Native to India o Part used: whole plant o Improving memory, reducing stress, wound healing, cellulite; skin rejuvenation o Cautions: no known risks Why hangovers hurt: o Alcohol relaxes blood vessels and they dilate; if blood vessels in brain open too wide they trigger pain nerves o Alcohol is a diuretic; fluid loss can trigger head pain o Fatigue and lousy-all-over feeling are the result of alcohols depressed effect and build up of acids in blood o Additives and impurities contribute to the side effects; dark alcohol is worse o The metabolism of alcohol occurs mainly in the liver and occurs in two steps. Acetaldehyde is a big contributor to hangovers Kudzu, Pueraria lobata, Pea family o Trailing or climbing perennial vine o Native to eastern Asia o Part used: root o Treatment for alcoholism, causes acetaldehyde to accumulate more rapidly in blood Milk Thistle, Silybum marianum, Sunflower family o Herbaceous annual or biennial o Native to Mediterranian, widely naturalized in US o Part used: seeds o Active ingredient is silymarin (a mixture), prompts manufacture of new, healthy liver cells o Extracts neutralize toxins from death cap mushroom (amanita) by displacing mushroom toxins from membrane receptors o Target therapies include..