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Week 6/7 Notes: Cellular Respiration

by: Whitney Kendall

Week 6/7 Notes: Cellular Respiration Life 102

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Life Science > Life 102 > Week 6 7 Notes Cellular Respiration
Whitney Kendall

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About this Document

Notes cover cellular respiration that were covered over weeks 6 and 7 of class
Attributes of Living Systems
Jennifer L Neuwald
Class Notes
Life Science, life, 102, Cellular Respiration
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Kendall on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Life Science at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/16
Cellular Respiration C 6 O12 66 -> 6CO 2 6H O + Ene2gy (ATP,2heat) ΔG= +/- 686 kcal/mol Transfer of electrons between atoms Na + Cl -> Na + Cl  + - Oxidation Reduction ("REDOX") Reactions Sodium (Na) gives 1 e valence to Chlorine (Cl) - - 11 electrons (e)                               17 electrons (e) 1  e in outer shell                              7 e in outer shell Low electronegativity                      High Electronegativity Sodium Ion (Na )                              Chlorine (Cl) - - 10 Electrons (e)                                18 electrons (e) Still 11 protons (+)                            Still 17 protons (+) - - 8 e in outer shell                              8 e in outer shell Before reaction: passing agent (reductant); 2 atoms, one will give up an electron (reductant), the other will grab one (oxidizer) After reaction: pass-receiving agent (reduced by reductant); 2 ions; if you lost one you were oxidized, if you gained you were reduced Lose Electron = Oxidation Gain Electron = Reduction **Remember: left to right on the periodic table electronegativity increases Left to right, high potential energy moves to low potential energy, in the middle is kinetic energy Low electronegativity moves to high, so therefore the energy in electrons in low electronegativity is going to have a high potential of moving Some of the stored potential energy is no longer usable when electrons move, but gives off energy to the cell which is used to create ATP The Great Oxidizer Glucose + 6O -> 6CO2+ 6H O + En2rgy 2 Oxygen is highly electronegative- gaining electrons- its being reduced; it’s the oxidizer Incomplete transfer is going to create covalent bonds Cellular Respiration - - High energy e to low energy e Transferring electrons from sugar to oxygen Energy from reaction is used for ATP Synthesis Marshmallow roasting is sugar oxidation Intermediate Electron Acceptors 1. Glucose + 2. NAD (coenzyme) All Catalyzed by 3. Electron Transport Chain Proteins enzymes!!! 4. Oxygen a. (e with each step!) b. Catalyzed reactions Oxidizing Glucose Instead of releasing 686 kcal/mol all at once, each step is 36x 7.3 kcal (ATP) + heat Most ATP made in cellular respiration is going to be made in the last stage, but still need the steps to prepare for the last step 1. Glycolysis 2. Citric acid cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain 4. Step 1: Glycolysis Energy Investment phase: starts with Glucose, phosphorylation from ATP now has a phosphate group,  Want to make glucose unstable  add a 2nd phosphate group Break glucose into 2 molecules: Fructose 1, 6-bisphophate 2 isomers: G3P and DHAP Isomerase converts DHAP into G3P; can also do it in reverse but it needs to be G3p because DHAP can't be used later Energy Payoff Phase: ATP formed G3P is giving electrons to NADH; stores high energy electrons An Inorganic phosphate is then drawn to the + charge NAD Wants to get rid of phosphates and synthesizes ATP and gives them to the Inorganic P To Synthesize ATP: Substrate level phosphorylation Enzyme brings substrate with P together with ATP, catalyzes it and makes ATP *** Glucose -> 2 NADH, 2 ATP, and pyruvate Net: Pyruvate  Goals: 1. ATP syn 2. NADH syn 3. Pyruvate Step 2: "pre-" Citric Acid Cycle= Pyruvate Oxidation Pyruvate loses electron, is oxidized into S-CoA NADH is reduced Citric Acid Cycle Goal to produce ATP and to make more NADH S-CoA is the reactant Oxaloacetate -> citrate, becomes isomer isocitrate by an enzyme -> transfer electrons, isocitrate is oxidizing, NADH is reducing creating an unusable branch lost to CO2- carbons came from oxaloacetate -> Ketoglutarate, gets rid of another of the same carbon as CO2 creating more NADH -> succinyl CoA Carbon molecules don’t come from original glucose molecules From one molecule of glucose… TOTAL = 4 ATP     10 NADH     2 FADH Step 3, 4, 6, and 8 are redox reactions Step 5 is phosphorylation Step 3: Oxidative Phosphorylation Inside membranes of cristae in mitochondria 1. ETC (Electron Transport Chain) Happens in a membrane- Oxidizing a. Transferring electrons slowly down like steps I. Each step releases energy for the cell II. ***Electron carriers start to transfer to proteins, which goes to another protein; electrons move from low electronegativity to high electronegativity; reason why the electrons move  b. Protein gains electron- reduced c. Protein loses electron- oxidized d. NADH and FADH are 2xidized e. Final electron receptor is oxygen 2. Chemiosmosis- phosphorylating a. ATP synthesis -> important molecule b. Move down concentration gradient through ATP synthase I. Like a rotary motor, its spinning on an axis, like a water wheel, creates ATP II. Powered by hydrogen atoms entering c. Yields 28 ATP molecules BIG Picture  Glycolysis~ 2 ATP  Citric Acid Cycle~ 2 ATP  Oxidative Phosphorylation~ 28 ATP  SUM= 32 ATP By product of anaerobic respiration is water Sulfur replaces O as e- acceptor Lactic Acid Fermentation Fermentation- never go into mitochondria, pyruvate instead becomes part of a cycle of glycolysis instead of being linear Alcohol Fermentation CO 2akes beer bubbly or bread rise Fermentation= 2 ATP per glucose Aerobic= 32 ATP per glucose


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