Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes crj 305
Popular in Gender, Crime, and Criminal Justice
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nisha Bhakta on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to crj 305 at Arizona State University taught by Joanna Pearson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Gender, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Crj 305 – Gender, Crime, Criminal Justice Chapter 4: A Gendered Account of Women and Girls’ Offending (September 22, 2016) Introduction o Extent of offending: Frequency (how often people offend) Changes in extend and nature of offending over time (KNOW GRAPHS ON TOP OF PAGE 112) ** Gender-stability – gender rates are relatively stable over time (rise, fall, stay flat together) (line are parallel on the graph) Gender divergence – gender gap widens over time (differences are increasing) (lines look like <) Gender convergence – gender gap is decreasing (crime rates approach each other) (line look like >) o Net widening – policies that define more behaviors as offenses o Is change due to individual behaviors or social policy changes? No pattern o Nature of offending: Type and seriousness of offenses (ex. Prostitution, drug possession, petty theft) o Gender stereotypes and assumptions about offending: Gender-related – more likely to be committed by one sex/gender Then designated as either male or female gender- related Gender-neutral – equally likely to be committed by either sex/gender Measuring Crime o Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) [only reflects the things the department’s report (this is an issue)] Yearly arrests reported by police departments Don’t include crimes unknown and unreported to the police Don’t include reported offenses for which the police choose not to arrest/unable to arrest Recent UCR Rates ** Frequency: Crime is male-gender-related (boys’ rates is 3x higher) Nature: Most violent and property crimes are committed by boys Gender stereotypes: o Larceny-theft approaches a gender-neutral offending pattern o Prostitution is the only female-gender-related offense Patterns in Offending over Time: o Look at type of data, the offense, political and social control climate o Since 1965, women’s/girl’s percent of all arrests has increased 260% o Victimization surveys indicate more gender stability o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) [victims may lie and leave out info (this is an issue)] Self-reporting (victims report and may lie or omit information) o Issues of racist and sexist enforcement of policy changes Changes in Domestic Violence Policies and Zero Tolerance Policies *Social Constructionist Theories: Increase in women’s and girls’ violent arrests is due to net- widening enforcement and other zero tolerance policies o More support for this theory “changes in the management of violence increasingly mask differences in the violence levels of women and men” o Also supported by changes in DUI laws o Changes in what actually constitutes an offense (changing policies can effect the rate of men or women crime rates) Normative Theory: Attributes increases to girls/women themselves, with either new freedoms of hardships they face (opposite of social constructionist theories) Importance of how Crime Rates Are Measured (typically younger people are committing crimes) o AGE AND JUVENILE DELINQUENCY Ages of 15 and 24 Gender differences exist in different age categories Gender uniformity exists in less-serious offenses, offending self-report studies, and victimization self-report studies Gender gaps exist more for violent offenses then status, property, or theft offenses o RACE/ETHNICITY Limited legitimate opportunities available to many people of color, as well as increased risk of being labeled criminal Discrimination can distort statistics o CLASS/SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS* Class impacts a person’s ability to afford bail and hire an attorney, practices highly related to conviction and sentencing results White families are more likely to enter into adulthood as “secret deviants” Issues of racism and discrimination o SEXUALITY Derogatory labeling for girls Reinforces images of girls as sex servicers and objects for male satisfaction Trading sex is motivated by survival o SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS* Cumulative victimizations negatively affect psychosocial functioning and increase likelihood of committing violent crimes, property crimes, drug offenses, and prostitution Frequency and Context of Women’s and Girl’s Offending for Specific Crimes o GANGS** Female gang members viewed as sidekicks and sex objects for male members Female members viewed as lesser – didn’t face as much lethal violence Females weren’t as likely to carry guns Peer influence/pressure was the primary motivation for committing offenses Approval of other girls is their most important reference group Female gang members work to maintain femininity and autonomy (men must respect them as women and as people) 4 main reasons for gang membership for girls*** Sense of belonging Respite from harsh environments Safety and protection Status (respect) o THEFT Shoplifting is gender neutral Economic issues force both males and females to shoplift. Also issues related to drug use and mental health Growing rates for women for larcenies and thefts Forgery and fraud are more female-gender-related offenses Property and financial offending are highly correlated with the feminization of poverty (more women are becoming poorer) o AGGRESSION AND ASSAULT Female offenders are often thrust into violence-prone situations Intoxication involved Issues with drug dealing o ROBBERY AND BURGLARY (men and women rob in different ways.) Male-gender-related offense Females were more likely to report being drug addicts and would often work with others to commit a burglary Robberies with female offenders often took place in the course of and subsequent to other crimes, especially prostitution, drug dealing, nonviolent theft, and fraud Finance-related to buy drugs Men would use physical violence or a gun Women would either o Target female victims o Promise men sexual favors for money o Work with men to rob men o DRUGS Drug use and selling: “War on drugs” has contributed to women’s increased incarceration rates Reasons for Using Drugs (Gendered differences) * Who initiates a person to use drugs: Women are more likely to be introduced to drugs by husbands and boyfriends Reasons for initial and continuing use: Women report more issues with depression – less likely to start/continue use for pleasure Doing masculinity and gender: Acting out against gender roles Self-medicating for depression: Huge factor for females Trading sex for drug: More common for females to trade sex for drugs Selling/Dealing drugs: More common for men to be selling Buying/Acquiring drugs: Purchase through normal means, but issues related to drug addiction and trading sex for drugs is a major factor for females Media’s role on vilifying and stereotyping drug-using women is profound Growing influence of methamphetamine on women o HOMICIDE (mainly committed by men) Women’s share of committing homicides has fallen to about 10% Women’s victims are more likely to be their current or former intimate partners Girls are more likely than boys to kill family members and have conflict-related killings
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