New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 7 (Oct. 3-7) Class Notes

by: Kelsey Morin

Week 7 (Oct. 3-7) Class Notes PSYC 405

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Psychology > PSYC 405 > Week 7 Oct 3 7 Class Notes
Kelsey Morin

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

* Sir Francis Galton * George John Romanes * Herbert Spencer * William James * Mary Whiton Calkins * Helen Thompson Woolley * Leta Stetter Hollingworth
History and Systems of Psychology
Dr. Alison Kelly
Class Notes
Psychology, Galton, Romanes, Spencer, calkins, Woolley
25 ?




Popular in History and Systems of Psychology

Popular in Psychology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Morin on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 405 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Alison Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychology at University of North Dakota.

Similar to PSYC 405 at UND

Popular in Psychology


Reviews for Week 7 (Oct. 3-7) Class Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/07/16
Week 7 - Class Notes 10-3-16 (Monday) Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)  Brought the spirit of evolution to bear on new psychology.  English multi-disciplination  Darwin’s cousin; knighted in 1909  Precocious child - Letter recommendation, alphabet comprehension, reading by 2.5 years - Medical apprenticeship at 16 (self-study of effects of medications). Took medication alphabetically. Ended at castor oil (laxative)  Extraordinary genius (IQ of 200) average IQ=100  Noteworthy inventions - Lock picking device, fingerprint ID, periscope (to look over people in a crowd)  Avid traveler and explorer - The Art of Travel (revised until 2001)  Designed weather map to plot data (machine still used today) Galton’s Mental Inheritance  Heredity Genius (1869)  Eminence occurred with in families more often than could be explained by the environment (eminent men had eminent sons).  Confirmed through biographical studies of influential scientists.  Founded the science of eugenics.  Encouraged birth of eminent (fit), discouraged birth of unfit.  Improve human race by artificial selection (selective mating).  Proposed tests and incentives to choose those to selectively breed. Galton’s statistical Methods  Applied the normal curve to mental characteristics.  Mean and standard deviation most useful for describing psychological data.  Yielded the correlation in 1888. Developed first correlation equation – was later redone into Pearson R. Francis Galton: Mental Tests  Assumed intelligence can be measured with major capacity. - Originated concept of Mental Tests. - Smartest people would have keenest sense.  Invented instruments to measure sensory-motor capacity. - Sound, color, olfaction, muscle sensitivity.  Anthropometric lab in south Kensington Museum (London) Charged people admissions and used them in lab testing.  Range of human capacities and mental resources of a population. George John Romanes (1848-1894)  Published “Animal Intelligence” (1883)  Collected data to demonstrate high level of intelligence and similarity to human functioning.  “Mental Ladder” arrayed species in order of degree of mental functioning.  Used Anecdotal Method to collect data - Casual observational reports by uncritical, untrained observers.  Derived findings via Introspection by Analogy.  Mental processes occurring in own mind must also occur in animal’s mind. - Ex: Cat belonging to Romanes’ driver, could open latched stable door. - Not scientifically rigorous, but pioneered efforts in development of comparative/animal psychology. Romanes started animal behavior research. 10.5.16 Wednesday Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)  “Semi-invalid and psychic cripple” - Took heavy doses of opium to help with insomnia - Unusual behaviors (wore earmuffs, constantly checked his pulse in odd places) - Neurotically-induced health problems  Prolific; viewed as a “messiah”  Social Darwinism - Application of evolutionary theory to human nature and society.  “Survival of the fittest” should operate freely within society - Let characteristics, institutions, and people who are not fit die out. - No government regulation, assistance from the state, or welfare. William James (1842-1910)  Ranked second to Wundt among psychology’s important figures.  Born in NYC, earned MD from Harvard in 1869.  Frequently ill, an “accomplished complainer”. - Depression, digestive disorders, insomnia, exhaustion, attempted suicide.  Epidemic of Neurasthenia “Americanitis” - Widely affected upper-class, educated Americans. - Resulted from overwork, pressure, working too frantically. - Americanitis elixir; lifestyle modifications. Men- travel more, exercise, get out of the house and have fun. Women- gain weight with high fat diet, limit work, lay in bed.  Disloyal to family - Unsettled after birth of each child; intentionally traveled. - Marital affairs while traveling; expected wife to be approving.  1872: Teaching position at Harvard  1875: First psychology course  1890: Published “The Principles of Pscyhology to widespread acclaim”  Last 20 years of his life as a philosopher Explaining James’s Influence  Wrote with a rare clarity  Opposed Wundt’s goal for psychology. He thought Wundt’s goal for psychology was too narrow.  Goals congruent with the functional approach. Shift in psychology from structuralism to functionalism. William James: The principles of Psychology  Psychology is the science of mental life (immediate experience, brain and body).  Rebelled against structuralism and introspection - “The Psychologist’s Fallacy” Experiences of trained introspectors wouldn’t match experiences of anyone else. Stream of Consciousness  Consciousness is a continually flowing process; any attempt to reduce it to elements distorts it. - Consciousness is always changing (constancy is an illusion). - The mind is continuous, there are no distractions between the flow of consciousness (e.g. sleep). - The mind is selective, choosing from among the many stimuli to which it’s exposed. Similar to selective attention – pay attention to more important stimuli. Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)  First woman president of the APA (1906).  Professor at Wellesley College (an all-female college).  Not allowed to formally enroll at Harvard, but could attend James’s seminars.  Harvard refused to grant her a PhD, despite her work.  Offered a degree from Radcliffe College by Harvard. She declined. 10.7.16 (Friday) Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930)  Developed the paried-associate technique for the study of memory.  Learn stimulus response pairs (Desk-Moon, Orange-Hat), later recall testing.  Contributed to understanding of short-term memory process  Demonstration in-class - Free recall test - Cued recall test  Conducted one of the first formal studies of dreams  Conclusions turned out to be accurate, despite self-study. Frequency, content, control.  Work was later acknowledged by Frued. The Functional Inequality of Women  The variability hypothesis - Men: wider range and variation of talents, physical characteristics. - Women: average in variation; lack mental and physical functioning to adapt to stimulating environment.  Darwin’s idea of male variability from study of species.  Education leads to physical and emotional damage; endangers biological imperative to motherhood. Studying will weaken maternal urge.  “If women were to be educated at all, it should be to motherhood.” – G. Stanley Hall Helen Thompson Woolley (1874-1947)  PhD University of Chicago (1900)  Director of vocational bureau in Cincinnati, OH public school system. - Research led to change in state’s child labor laws.  Experimentally tested the biological notion that women were inferior to men.  No sex differences in emotional functioning.  Small, non-significant differences in intellectual abilities. - Social and environmental factors (child-rearing, expectations) - Accused of bias, “feminist interpretation”. Leta Stetter Hollingworth (1886-1939)  Empirically refuted the variability hypothesis. - No difference in variability of physical characteristics explored.  Undercut the myth that the menstrual cycle is related ot performance deficits.  Challenged the concept of an innate instinct for motherhood.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.