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SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapters 7 and 8

by: Kristy Trahan

SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapters 7 and 8 SOCL 2001

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Kristy Trahan

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Introduction to Sociology
T. Kazi
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology, tasiakazi, SOCL2001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Kazi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Chapter 7  Differentiation: how people vary according to social characteristics o Example: people who like desk jobs vs field job, people who prefer to work in team vs solitary work o Sociologists do not rank people high or low based on differentiation o People are ranked according to the scarce resources they control o What are scarce resources?  Money/property and social status/prestige  Stratification: the organization of society in which people are ranked according to their WEALTH or PRESTIGE o A hierarchal structure of society o Inequality and social stratification are often used interchangeably o Inequality exists between any of two or more individuals/groups o Social stratification applies to how a particular society is organized  Social stratification influences every part of our lives o Example:  Living status (neighborhood)  School (public or private)  Work (blue or white collar)  Types of society o Hunting and gathering  50 or less people  Live on what they can find to eat  Nomadic, always in search for food  No surplus food  Everybody does the same work, no division of labor  May get special respect (age, wisdom, skill, magical power) but no authority, no power *****little differentiation, little stratification o Horticultural  Small tools (for digging, irrigation, fertilization)  Reliable food source  Sometimes surplus of food  Remain in one location, build shelter, make tools  Occasionally fight wars to protect lands  Started to have ownership of land  Division of labor occurs based on specialization: warriors, ceremonial/political leaders  Capture slaves and enforce their edicts *****stratification system develops but not extensively o Agrarian  Far more sophisticated technology  Ability to work with iron (metallurgy)  Usage of plows and firearms  Cultivate faster (domesticate animals and good technology)  Exponentially increase the production level SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan  Surplus value- excessive amount of crop  Heavy weapons- conquer lands, develop armies  Three social classes  Serfs o Farmers who are controlled by the states  States o The rich families  Merchants o Trade a variety of goods  Birth of BOURGEOISIE and PROLETARIAT  Terminology by KARL MARX *****starting point of huge social stratification o Industrial  Average peoples’ standards of living increased  Overall stratification is not as high as agrarian society  Social Class (more towards modern day): o Depends on wealth, power, and life chances (opportunity) to acquire wealth  Example: women from upper middle class vs lower class o Social status: combination of honor and prestige o Power: ability to control others’ behavior without their consent  Example: political affiliation, club member o Socioeconomic status: income, education, occupation  Income: easy to quantify, occupational prestige not so easy PG 198  Inequality in the US o Distribution of income:  GINI COEFFICIENT- index that measures degree of income inequality  100%- all income is going to one person  0%- there is no inequality because everyone is getting an equal amount of money o Not possible in a capitalist society (like in the US)  Rank of Countries for least GC o 1. Sweden o 4. Denmark o 13. Germany o 98. US  GC is higher in developing countries  Median household income, Louisiana- $39,443 (middle income)  47 - one of the lowest ranking household incomes in the US  Occupy wall street movement  Richer are becoming richer, poorer are becoming poorer o Distribution of Wealth  Top 1% of household holds 34.6% of the wealth  Social status in the US: difficult to assign on the basis of wealth  Wealth became a secondary attribute to rank people  Class consciousness  1983 study done by Jackman SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o People always categorize themselves by class categories o Occupation was the primary consideration, then education  1930- people had the consciousness of wealth in society because of the Great Depression (were more concerned about poverty)  1960- changed views  1980- Americans appear to be uninterested in the government’s actions to reduce inequality and poverty  2012- social inequality becomes a major social problem o Why the rich are getting richer and the poor are becoming poorer  Poverty  46.2 million people were living in poverty in 2010  Feminization of poverty:  Females get a lower income than males  $50,000- median for males  $38,500- median for females o Even doing the same work and putting in the same hours  Sociological Theories and Social Stratification o Structural Functional Theory  Refined spencer’s notion that society is self-regulating and self- maintaining  Believe that systems of stratification develop because societies need scarce leadership skills and reward those who are willing to assume the responsibility of leadership  Stratification is inevitable- it must be serving some functions  Complex nature of modern society: specialization needed  Whose job is more important? CEO or garbage collector  Can easily replace a garbage collector within a day  CEOs need extensive training and education to be able to run the company in a profitable way and be successful  Importance and difficulty vs demand and supply  For a CEO, the demand is high and the supply is low, so the salary is high  The opposite applies to the garbage man  All human beings are equal but their skills make them important  Social Stratification Theory explains human equality and inequality at the same time o Conflict Theory  Derived from Marx’s class theory  Believe that stratification develops because some groups gain a monopoly of the scarce resources, through either inheritance or conflict, and they use those resources to maintain their high positions  Inequality develops because people want power  Resources are not rewarded but gained through inheritance, coercion, and exploitation SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan  False consciousness: lack of awareness of own interest and acceptance of elite rule  The elite make a vibe for the poor people to make them think they belong in the poor class  Class consciousness  Are aware people’s fates are tied to the fate of their own class  Realize that the quality of the neighborhood school they attend is determined by how much money they have  Marx’s theory is too simplistic  Neo-Marxism: proletariat: 2 extra dimensions: organizations and skill  Organization and skill are assets o Developed these through education, technology, and networks  CEO with high salary, no means of production, but high organizational capacity  12 class position  Negative Aspect of Social Stratification o Less productivity- I can’t get out of this class so there’s point in trying o Animosity (towards the higher classes) o Strong ‘status quo’, no social change  Feminization of Poverty o due to high divorce rate and single mothers o average pay is still low o females are underpaid o Women make 77% of what men make  Inequality and Life Chances o Occupation: most important life chances o Majority are working class (blue-collared jobs) o Clerical positions are not blue-collar jobs but still low paid  Most of these jobs are held by women (secretary)  Encouraged to do this o Full time year round income $14,500: below poverty line  Housing and lifestyle o Upper class (rich): own several houses, manage business affairs with mutual respect and close cooperation, wealth remains in the same group through wed- lock o Upper middle class: top 20% own homes mostly in suburbs, houses are considered a good investment o Working class: resides in the suburb (rental property) prices increase, rent increases, difficult to maintain living standard o Poor people: substandard housing in rural areas, 3 million homeless, often assaulted and raped  Half a million kids are homeless (mostly in foster care and hospitals)  Education o Upper class: private o High social network SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o Middle class: public, excellent chance of going to college o Working class: neighborhood school, drop out, teen pregnancy, trouble in getting jobs ***education is the only component of life chances that are associatedwith family wealth  Medical Care o Upper and middle class: insurance o 51 million people with no health coverage (US Census Bureau, 2009) o 24% of children are not vaccinated o 1 of 8 children under age 12 suffers from malnutrition o USA and South Africa: no national health system o 2010 ObamaCare: extends health coverage to 32 million people  Social Mobility in the US o Caste system- closed (India)  No way of moving through the social classes  Poor always poor, rich always rich o Class System- open, fluid o Upward mobility: most influenced by structural changes in the workplace (changing jobs)  By developing skills and bettering your education o Downward mobility: life of veterans/ marrying someone with lower rank o Intragenerational mobility: people who change class or status within their own lifetimes  drop out and come back  Go back to college, get a degree and get a better job o Intergenerational mobility: measured by comparing the social positions of parents and their children  Parents are farmers, but after the child gets a better education they could work for the industry o Structural mobility: upward, intergenerational mobility  Farming vs industry  Bound to change your status because a structure in the society has changed  Factors of Structural Mobility: o Growth of large corporation o Standard of living o Urban areas o Advanced technology  Individual Characteristics o Structural Functional Theory: society rewards people who develop leadership through education and hard work o Family background produces income but not upward mobility o Conflict theorists: equal opportunity through changes in social stratification  Raising your voice for equal opportunity Life chances for occupations, housing, education, and medical care vary in relation to a person’s place in the stratification system. The important determination of class position in this country is family background. SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Chapter 8  Racial Group: distinguished by inherited physical characteristics o Facial features, body type, skin color, hair texture, etc. o Self-defined race: 2000- 1 to 19 possible groups o 2010: 9 million people multiracial o Biology vs. socially defined  Ethnic Group: unique cultural traits, ascribed membership, sense of community, territoriality o also refers to group membership based on religion, language, or region o Dress, language, religion, speech pattern o Subcultures o Sense of peoplehood o Like race, ethnicity is socially created and maintained  Minority Groups: not in number but in terms of power and privilege o stereotypes: over simplified beliefs about that minority group  usually begin with an undesirable characteristic of said group  Often change and develop out of fear  Middle-eastern people riding planes  Media  Rarely used to create positive image  Racial and ethnic profiling o Clark and Clark 1939  A study done where black children were asked to pick between a black or white doll  The majority chose the white doll because they thought it was the good doll  Prejudice: preconceived, negative attitude and judgement o Usually based on stereotypes; thoughts and beliefs exist inside a person’s head o Economic Theory of Prejudice: competition and conflict  Supposition that competition and conflict among groups are inevitable when different groups desire commodities that are in short supply o Psychological Theory of Prejudice: suggests that prejudice satisfies psychic needs or compensates for some defect in the personality  Frustration Aggression Theory: o Groups who strive repeatedly to achieve their goals become frustrated after failing a number of times; become so frustrated they take it out on a socially approved target (racial or ethnic group)  Nazis taking frustrations from failure of nationalist ambitions out on Jews  Normative Theory: emphasizes socialization as an explanation for prejudice o People from an intolerant household are more likely to be openly prejudiced  Authoritarian Personality Theory: some people are more likely to be prejudiced than others due to differences in personality  Discrimination: refers to the unfair/unequal behavior or actions o The categorical exclusion of members of a specific group from certain rights, opportunities, and/or privileges o Prejudice is a judgement, an attitude SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o Individual vs. Institutional Discrimination  Individual: discrimination from a certain individual, usually resulting from prejudice  Institutional: the continuing exclusion or oppression of a group as a result of criteria established by an institution  “white only”, denial of voting rights for blacks o Structural Discrimination: apartheid policy in south Africa  No laws or rules apply with the intent of excluding any person or group from particular rights, opportunities, or privileges  Not discriminated at the individual level, but as a group  Racism: one particular race is superior o 5 functions a racist ideologies serve:  1. Provides a moral rationale for systematic deprivation  2. Allows the dominant group to reconcile values and behavior  3. Discourages the subordinate group from challenging the system  4. Rallies adherence in support of a “just cause”  5. Defends the existing division of labor o 6 ways of dysfunctionality  1. Uneven distribution of resources- fails to use resources of all individuals  2. Increase social problems- aggravates problems such as poverty, crime  3. Time and resources- to defend the barriers that prevent full participation of all members  4. International conflict- undercut goodwill and friendly diplomatic relations between nations  5. Discourage social change- is inhibited because it may assist a subordinate group  6. Disrespect for law and peaceful settlement of disputes (discrimination) o Individual Racism- originates in the racial beliefs of a single person o Institutional Racism- racist ideas are embedded in the folkways, mores, or legal structures of various institutions  Patterns of group interaction: o 1. Ethnic Antagonism:  Mutual opposition, conflict, and hostility among different ethnic groups o 2. Integration and Assimilation  Integration: ethnicity becomes insignificant and everyone can freely and fully participate in the social, economic, and political mainstream  Assimilation: individuals and groups forsake their own cultural tradition to become part of a different group and tradition  Melting pot vs. Anglo Conformity  Melting pot assimilation: a+b+c=d o Each group contributes a bit of its own culture and absorbs aspects of other cultures such that the whole is a combination of all the groups  Anglo conformity: a+b+c=a SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o Everyone adopts the dominant culture (a) and the minority completely loses its identity o 3. Cultural Pluralism: a+b+c=a+b+c (salad bowl)  Situation in which the various racial, ethnic, or other minority groups in a society maintain their distinctive cultural patterns, subsystems, and institutios o 4. Segregation: physical and social separation- de jure vs de facto  De Jure: segregation by law (schools for whites only or blacks only)  De Facto: segregation in fact (black and white neighborhoods) o Donald Noel- three factors that cause social stratification  1. Ethnocentrism  2. Compete for resources  3. Inequality in Power o Mass expulsion: expelling from the homeland  Genocide: WWII  Major Ethnic and Racial Groups in the US o Hispanic Americans  Large families, strong family bonds/ties o African Americans  2 largest in the US  Only minority group that do not have their own distinct culture  Don’t know exactly where they originated from  List transitions later o Asian Americans  Highly diverse (Vietnamese, Chinese, Korean)  Chinese were the first Asians to come to the US o Native Americans o WASPs (white anglo saxonprotestants) and white ethnic Americans  Mainly European immigrants o Jewish Americans  More jews in the US than in Israeli


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