Synthetic Cathinones FSC 440
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 440 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Nesser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Drug Identification in Forensic Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
FSC 440- Drug Identification September 3, 2016 Synthetic Cathinones -CSA schedule I -collectively called “bath salts” due to their appearance -marketed as cheap substitutes for other stimulants like methamphetamine/ cocaine/ molly (MDMA) -Bath Salts can be snorted, smoked, injected (IV or IM), or ingested -sold in 50-500mg packages and go for $25-50 per 50mg -the typical dose is 5-30mg and overdose can occur at around 50mg -Street Names: purple waves, white lightning, cloud 9 History Cathinone comes from the leaves of the Khat plant which has been used as far back as the th 14 century The first synthetic cathinone drug was synthesized in 1928 and called methcathinone Mephedrone was created in 1929 The synthesis of MDPV was described in 1967 and Methylone was created in 1996 and is a more recent analog The abuse of synthetic cathinones began in the early 2000s Synthetic Cathinones were made to be used as a potential therapeutic drug but the high potential for abuse and addiction prevented it from becoming marketable Mephedrine is the most widely abused synthetic cathinone in Europe- MDPV and Methylone are most frequently used in US Bupropion is the only cathinone derivative that has a medical use as an anti-depressant and smoking cessation The number of calls to poison control about bath salts has significantly decreased from 2011 MDPV alpha-PVP Methylone Mephedrone All of these analogs resemble Cathinone and are only differ by their substituents ______________________________________________________________________________ Cathinone Amphetamine Cathinone and Amphetamine are structurally similar. The only difference is the presence of the carbonyl group in Cathinone which changes the polarity of cathinone to make it more polar and harder to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it is less effective than Amphetamine due to the change in polarity Side Effects of Bath Salts -These drugs are unpredictable & create physical and psychological problems Dilated pupils Headache Increased body temperature Increased heart rate Hallucinations Chest pain Severe paranoia Suicidal thoughts Seizures -“excited delirium” is a rare and uncommon side effect of synthetic cathinones Signs: anxiety, hallucinations, disorientation, increased body temperature, insensitivity to pain, and hyper aggression. This can be a direct or indirect cause of death There is very little research available on the long term effects of this drug Addiction Synthetic Cathinones are very addictive Human users have reported that the drug triggers intense cravings which are uncontrollable and urging them to use the drug again Strong Withdrawal Symptoms Depression Anxiety Tremors Insomnia Paranoia Treatment for Synthetic Cathinone Use Benzodiazepines CIV are helpful especially with the seizures that occur, but long time use of this drug can also cause physical and psychological dependence Benzodiazepines cannot be used to cure addiction if the person has already abused MDPV CI drug Intranasal is the most common route of ingestion but it can also be administered via oral, rectal, and IV routes It appears as a white to light brown crumble powder It is unstable and rapidly degrades if exposed to air for a significant period of time. It can last 24 hours at room temperature, 12 hours at 40◦ and from days to weeks when stored in a freezer. Pharmacokinetics The average high lasts approximately 6-8 hours with a peak at 90 minutes The average dose is 5-20mg The “come down” from the drug is described as so unpleasant that users cease abuse or take it with other drugs such as alcohol or benzodiazepines Pharmacology CNS stimulant similar to Methamphetamines, MDMA, cocaine Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) meaning that the drug prevents the reabsorption of neurotransmitters Metabolites of MDPV 4-OH-3-MeO-PV 3,4-Catechol-PV -There is a 7 step chemical synthesis of the 2 main metabolites of MDPV. Demethylation + O-methylation Demethylation -MDPV concentration in blood after 8 hours is 1% -The concentration of the 2 metabolites after 8 hours is 40% Forensic Analysis Synthetic Cathinones are not detectable using common field kits or drug-screening tests General screening and confirmatory tests are done with: GC-MS; LC-MS; LC-MS/MS Screening for synthetic cathinones is very limited: Raman spectrometry and immunoassays by Randox but it is limited to major synthetic cathinones Challenges with Chromatography Screening Lacks the availability of the reference standards for new drugs Variable quality of reference standards Lack of labeled internal standards Chemical similarity of new drugs within a class requires great care with identification Government Effects
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