Mushrooms FSC 440
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 440 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Nesser in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Drug Identification in Forensic Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
FSC 440- Drug Identification October 5, 2016 Mushrooms CSA Schedule I Active Substances: psilocybin and psilocin Street Names: shrooms Psychophysical Action: Hallucinogen Street Prices: $3-15 per gram History Mushrooms have been used for centuries by Indian cultures of Mexico and Central America Stone artifacts show use as early as 1500 B.C. In 1502 B.C. the first recorded hallucinogenic use of mushrooms was during the coronation feast of Montezuma. They called this substance Teonanacatyl which means “flesh of the Gods” It was often used in festivals and religious ceremonies When Christianity spread to Central America and Mexico the use of mushrooms in religion was frowned upon. This caused the ceremonies to go underground and use the mushrooms in secret Use and distribution went widely unnoticed for a while In 1953 a NY banker visited Mexico and discovered the use of hallucinogenic mushrooms. He helped to resurface the use of mushrooms to the world Background With the reemergence of mushrooms, a French mycologist was able to cultivate species in the lab and isolate both psychoactive substances Albert Hofmann (inventor of LSD) created synthetic forms of psilocybin (Indocybin) which was to be marketed as research drug for psychoactive mind control which was hypothesized to cure phobias by planting ideas in a person’s mind. 1965 The research drug was pulled because psilocybin became a controlled substance under federal law Research Psilocybin and psilocin have been found in over 185 varieties of mushrooms Multiple studies are being conducted to test the helpfulness of these drugs Studies include: blocking cluster headaches, OCD, and easing pain of terminally ill patients Supply In the 1960’s mushrooms became popular in the US Psilocybin mushrooms can be found growing in forests, grassy areas, along roads, and in particularly nutrient pastures There are numerous mushroom species that have been found across the country Identification A test to know if a mushroom contains psilocybin is to pinch the mushroom top and it will turn a bluish color when it is bruised. However, many wild poisonous mushrooms also mimic this effect and they can cause severe liver damage and hinder kidney functions so that an individual who ingests it will die in about 2-7 days Spores are equivalent to microscopic seeds To identify, take the cap off of stock and lay gill down on white paper for a few hours. As it dries, seeds will be released that are purplish-brown to black in color Laws and Cultivation Growth and cultivation of mushroom hosts are illegal but the spores are legal (except in CA) Kits are sold online that contain the spores as well as directions on how to properly grow and cultivate mushrooms Because of the low concentration of psilocybin in the spores the federal regulations do not list it on a schedule Indoor Cultivation Most indoor cultivation is very small and is done in house for personal use Indoor cultivation allows for 0.5-1.0% by volume concentration Allows for protection from poisonous mushrooms and outdoor pests Provides a steady and year round market for illicit production and distribution Shelf Life Mushrooms grow well in wet, warm environments But are prone to spoil and mold if left damp after harvesting To dry a mushroom, it can be placed in a warm oven or air dried in the sun causing it to turn a deep brown color and become stiff and rigid in appearance When dried properly it can have a shelf life of 2-3 years Distribution Confiscated in small sandwich bags where the dried mushrooms are broken up Can be ground into a course powder and put into a gelatin capsule Often distributors will mix PCP and LSD into it to increase the effects longevity Similar Families Amanita Muscaria Hallucinogenic mushroom Contains the alkaloids muscimol and ibotenic acid Not a controlled substance Grows in the wild in a variety of colors Ingestion The caps and stems can be ingested either fresh or dried They can be eaten, brewed into tea, soups, omelets, made into candy, capsules, coated in chocolate The mushroom has a very acidic taste due to psychoactive ingredients Potency The potency ranges from the growing area and environmental conditions even among the same species Most will grow from dead plant material Some species have up to 2.5% concentration when grown outdoors, indoor growing allows for greater potency due to better nutrients and less damaging conditions Dose 1% of active drug in mushroom is equivalent to 10mg of the drug Once a person reaches 20mg there are more noticeable changes in auditory and visual perception As the dosage increases the effects will increase as well There is a greater risk of personal injury Doses over 60mg are not recommended Effects Psilocybin is the most available psychoactive drug in the mushroom and is converted to the metabolite psilocin by the liver. This is known as dephosphorylation Psilocin is directly responsible for the hallucinogenic effects of mushrooms The effects are similar to LSD but LSD is about 100 times more potent Timed Effects Within 30 minutes of ingestion- individual will become light headed and have a sense of heaviness in the body Within 30-60 minutes of ingestion- visual effects become more apparent, brighter colors, dreamy state Within 60-90 minutes of ingestion- visual effects increases, distorted distances, and experience slow perception of time Within 90-120 minutes of ingestion- introspective state- individual has increased body sensations and deeper mental perceptions Within 120-180 minutes of ingestion- the effects begin to taper off and become less pronounced Within 180-300 minutes of ingestion- all effects are non-existent Dangers Can affect salivation and appetite, sexual feelings, and synethesias Bad trips are influenced by the environment: intense anxiety and fear, disorientation, mood changes, and difficulty separating fantasy from reality Body develops a quick tolerance to psilocin and individual must undergo a hiatus for the body to respond to the drug again Ingesting poisonousness mushrooms will result in death Pharmacology Similar to mescaline and LSD Inhibits the serotonin in the brain Less potent than LSD and the effect generally wears off in 6 hours Structures
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