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Psych 100: Week 6 Notes: Sensation and Perception

by: Brendan Notetaker

Psych 100: Week 6 Notes: Sensation and Perception PSYCH 100

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYCH 100 > Psych 100 Week 6 Notes Sensation and Perception
Brendan Notetaker
Penn State
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Hey guys! I recently started making my own notes for the material we've been going over in class. I've tried to add some examples to make some of the concepts more easy to understand. Let me know w...
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Skattebo
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brendan Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Skattebo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
Psych 100 Week 6: Sensation and Perception Sensation: The input you receive about your environment through your senses (sight, hearing,  touch, taste, etc.) Perception­ How the sensations are processed by your mind Two Key Parts: ­Bottom­up Processing ­Top­down Processing Bottom­up Processing: ­Taking sensory info and assembling and integrating it. ­In English, this basically means building an understanding of what something is by taking  individual “puzzle pieces” and putting them together. ­”what am I seeing?” ­(ex: You walk outside, you see the sky is gray, you feel water splashing on you, you smell wet  pavement. Therefore, it must be raining) Top­down Processing: ­Using models, ideas, and expectations to interpret sensory info. ­AKA, you basically have the whole puzzle in front of you, now you just want to look at the  individual parts. ­”is this something I’ve seen before?” ­(ex: Your best friend cuts and dyes her hair a completely different color. She looks very  different, but you can still recognize her when you first see her because you already have a pre­ established sense of what she looks like because you’ve seen her before) Perception also has thresholds. Absolute Threshold: ­The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus ­(ex: if you have the volume on your TV at 0, and you start to turn it up, the second you begin to  hear the TV, that is your absolute threshold. If you’re highly sensitive to sound and you hear the  sound easier than others can, you have a low threshold. If someone, let’s say your  grandfather, performs the same test, if his hearing is bad, he obviously will not hear the TV at  the same volume that you did and will only hear it when the volume is much higher. Therefore,  we can say your grandfather has a high threshold because he cannot detect sound until it is  much higher.  Difference Threshold: ­The minimum difference between two stimuli needed to detect a change. ­(ex: if you slowly start to dim the lights, the second you actually register the light as getting  dimmer, that is your difference threshold between the two brightness levels.) Anatomy of the Eye:  Retina: Holds both the Cones and the Rods Cones: ­about 6 million in one eye ­picks up color ­hint: think Cones = Color ­3 pairs that distinguishes between two colors  ­RED/GREEN ­BLUE/YELLOW ­BLACK/WHITE 3 types of people: ­Trichromats: have normal color vision ­Dichromats: can’t distinguish between red and green ­Monochromats: cannot see any color  Rods: ­about 120 million in one eye ­picks up light ­the reason you can make out shapes and find your way around your bedroom in the dark Perceptual Sets: ­what we expect to experience ­changes how we interpret a situation ­(ex: If your friend tells you about how mean a teacher you are about to go see is, you are more  inclined to perceive said teacher’s behaviors as ill­spirited or aggressive, whether or not they  actually are. This is why people tell you to not read movie reviews before seeing a movie, as  they will most likely alter your opinion of the movie before you even see it) Monocular Cues: Relative Size and Height ­in a picture, people closer to the camera look much bigger than people far in the distance Interposition ­the position of certain shapes can form shapes that are not actually there ­ex: (There is no actual square, but your brain creates one based on the position of the partial­ circles. The “square” in the middle may actually appear to be a bit brighter than the background, but that is simply your mind trying to make it stand out to you.) Linear Perspective ­straight lines appearing to converge in the distance ­ex: (notice how the tracks appear to “disappear” when they reach the horizon) Light and Shadow:  ­ex: (notice how the shadow on the moon makes it look 3D, even though this is clearly a 2D picture)


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