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Geology 100, Chap 5

by: Sarah Martin

Geology 100, Chap 5 Geology 100

Sarah Martin

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These notes have the study questions for chapter 5 with pictures.
Geology 100
Sabreen Ata Gad
Class Notes
Geology, 100, Kansas State, Chapter, 5
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Martin on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geology 100 at Kansas State University taught by Sabreen Ata Gad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Geology 100 in Geology at Kansas State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
10/3 Role of source area: melting mantle forms mafic (light) magma; melting continental crust forms felsic (dark) or intermediate magma Mixing magma: assimilation (incorporation of host rocks) Magma moving: dikes are through fractures; removing the overlying rocks piece by piece; broken dark fragments melt of intact Determining factors of how far magma rises: magma pressure, density, gas pressure, stress Felsic magma: more silicate minerals causes it to be harder to move or more slowly; taller volcano; continental crust Mafic magma: mantle; more pressure; magnetic conduit; moves faster; crater Oceanic crust: produces mafic magma; contains basalt; denser than felsic Controls the ease of magma flow: temperature; composition; percentage of crystal Higher percentage of crystals, harder for magma to move High viscosity: lava piles up: low temperature -> lower temp and abundant silicates Magma cooling: lose heat to air, water, or underlying rocks; conduction into wall rocks; loses gases Slow cooling: looks like marble (bigger chunks) Medium cooling: smaller marble Fast cooling: looks like sand or very fine grained Fast the slow cooling: very big differences in sizes throughout the rock Order of mineral crystallization (high temp to low temp): olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, plagioclase, K-Feldspar, quartz Magma at divergent plate boundaries -> decompression melting Igneous rocks in oceanic crust: ocean, pillow basalt (big round rock shaped), sheeted dikes of basalt (fractured basalt), gabbro (same chemical composition as basalt), mantle Melting in ocean-ocean convergent boundary (subduction zone): add water to hot mantle 10/5 Magmatism at hot spots: rising mantle plume, oceanic island volcano Crustal melting and caldera in continent; huge basalt flows on continents ^neither of these move horizontally, the plate does move however creating lots of islands Large magma chambers: large, solidified magma chambers exposed to surface by: Irregular plutons: some vertical; ex: toyabe range, Nevada Sheet-like plutons: ex: cuernos del Paine, Chile; bottom and top are very dark, the middle is light gray Batholith: contiguous plutons: ex: sierra Nevada, CA Laccolith: bulge shaped magma body; ex: Henry Mountains, Utah Formation of a volcanic neck: inside volcano; eroded into volcanic neck Beneath volcano; overlying materials eroded away; magma chamber collapses because of water vapor released Ex: Shiprock, New Mexico Columnar joints: cooling of magma in sections Sierra nevada batholith, CA: metamorphic rocks, gigantic rocks, fault along eat side … Study question PICS 10/7 Chapter 5: Magma generated by subduction of plate next to north american plate Mt st helens has had the most eruptions in the northwest area of US; latest eruption was 1980; ash rose 25 km; Types of eruptions: typical lava coming out of hill or mountain; when volcano is dormant for a long time, we see heavy smog or dirt or ash cover; coming out of crack in the ground or fissure or depression (not a hill) Hill capped by volcanic rocks formed by: fissure feeds a lava flow -> erosion of flow -> ; not a volcano Types of volcanos: Scoria (cinder) cone: several hundred meters high, usually basaltic Shield volcano: size ranges from a kilometer across to huge mountains, mostly basalt Composite volcano: interlayering of lava flow, pyroclastic deposits, symmetric mountains Volcanic dome: felsic and intermediate magma, rock fragments Types of eruptions: lava flow from lava vent; lava fountain from basaltic magma; eruption column from tephra (ash eruption) How gases affect magma: under less pressure, gas forms bubbles; dissolved … How viscosity affects eruptions: ash cloud is more viscous than flowing lava Rock types and how they're formed: Vesicular basalt: darker; more porous Nonvesicular basalt: finer grains; lighter in color Scoria: large pores; medium color Lava tubes: previously erupted lava cooled in such a way that it formed a roof but the vent is not done spitting out lava AA lava: rugged appearance because they break into fragments that are then moved Pahoehoe lava: small opening left so it cools in a way that looks like you're pouring thick cake batter Scoria cones and basalt flow: early formation of a scoria cone; switch to lava flows Shield volcanos in hot spots: fluid magma from fissures and scoria cones; Mauna Loa is the world's largest volcano (29,520) feet above the sea floor Kilauea has fissures fed by dikes; can have craters and small calderas Flood basalts: large igneous eruptions on earth Origin of flood basalts: plume rises through mantle; plume partially melts (plume rises to base of lithosphere); plume spreads with additional melting (melting of lithosphere) Hazards: lava fountain; volcanic ash; fire; lava flow


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