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GY 208, October 4th

by: Madison Smith

GY 208, October 4th GY 208

Madison Smith
Jacksonville State University
GPA 3.25

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About this Document

Map projection types
Map Reading
Larry J. Morgan, Daniel Mcgowan
Class Notes
Map, geography, projections
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Smith on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GY 208 at Jacksonville State University taught by Larry J. Morgan, Daniel Mcgowan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Map Reading in Geography at Jacksonville State University.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
GY 208 10/04/16 COMMONLY USED MAP PROJECTIONS Planar Projection 1. Orthographic a. Ancient Egyptians i. What earth would look like if you were looking at it from another planet b. The drawback is that it only shows one hemisphere at a time 2. Stereographic a. Hipparchus b. Light source opposite point of tangency c. Usually poles in center, shows only part of a hemisphere 3. Gnomonic th a. Thales of Miletus (6 century BC) b. Light source at center (inside) c. Straight lines are great circles; most useful for great circle distances d. Also can show sizemic waves 4. Azimuthal Equidistant a. Egyptians created b. Shows entire Earth c. Drawback is only great circle distance from point of tangency d. Useful for airports 5. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area a. Johann Heinrich Lambert, 1772 b. Good for showing certain areas/regions Cylindrical Projections 1. Equirectangular a. Horizontal lines = equal space b. Vertical lines = 2x as wide as they are tall c. Poles represented as a line 2. Mercator a. Gerhardus Mercator b. Tangent, conformal (preserves shape) c. Lines get twice as tall as they are wide d. Preserves constant direction e. Good for early navigational purposes 3. Gall-Peters a. James Gall (1885) b. Arno Peters – made adjustments in 1967 i. Argued that the map didn’t exaggerate Europe like the Mercator did ii. Only “non-racist” projection c. Secant case i. 2 lines of tangency at 45* N & 45* S 4. Transverse Mercator a. Lambert b. Carl Gauss c. Johann Kruger d. Rotated 90*, cylinder touches poles e. “Reverse engineering the globe” f. focus on small area, probably won’t create a small map g. conformal Conic Projections 1. Lambert Conformal Conic Projection a. Lambert b. 33* N & 45* N c. secant case d. useful for aeronautical charts e. straight lines are nearly identically to great circle 2. Albers Equal Area Cone a. Heinrich Albers, early 1800s b. 29.5* N & 45.5* N c. census bureau & USGS uses these mostly - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PESUDOCYLINDRICAL PROJECTIONS (and others) • positioning at several cylindrical projections • usually straight parallels and equal spaced meridians 1. Mollweide a. Carl B. Mollweide, 1805 b. Twice as wide as it is tall c. Ellipsoid in shape d. Center parallel – equator e. Center meridian – prime meridian 2. Sinusoidal a. Jean Cossin may have been the first in the 1500s b. Nicholas Sansom, 1700s c. John Flamsteed, 1700s d. Preserves east and west distances to preserve Scale Fac. of 1 i. Central meridian has SF of 1 3. Homolosine a. J. Paul Goode b. Combo of Mollweide and Sinusoidal c. Uninterrupted d. Interrupted i. Good to show continents ii. Multiple projections combined iii. Best at minimizing distortions iv. Cut into lobes 4. Robinson a. Arthur Robinson b. Orthophanic c. Not conformal nor equal area d. Just to look as nice as possible 5. Aitoff a. David Aitoff b. Curved parallels c. Basis for widely accepted map 6. Winkel Tripel a. Oswald Winkel b. Not equisdistant, not conformal, not equal area c. Comprised to minimize distortion i. Average distances of Aitoff and Equirectangular d. Adopted by National Geographic in 1998 as it’s world map


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