ENEC 201 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16
ENEC 201 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16 ENEC 201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENEC 201 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by GANGI,GREGORY J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY in Environment and Ecology at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
ENEC 210 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16 10/3/16 - Microcredit started by Muhamed Eunice o Noticed a lot of economic theory didn’t work in Bangladesh Mostly top-down Lots of foreign aid going in, but not much being done with it o Noticed many beggar women whose lives could be improved with just small sums of money o Started giving them loans out of his own pocket Paying back loans makes them more responsible than just handouts o Tried to get banks in Bangladesh to scale this up, but they didn’t want to give loans to people without collateral (beggars/poor/women don’t usually have property to act as collateral) o Established Grameen Bank instead Focuses mostly on women, men can use bank, but only through women o Problems: for-profit microcredit in India People given incentives to sign up in rural areas Targeted mostly men- unable to pay back loans Bank possesses a lot of their property and many men committed suicide o Benefits Significant reductions in poverty Reduction of domestic violence - Large stride toward gender equality Much of women’s income goes back into household economy - Increased education of children - Decreased poverty in family - Empowerment of female children Encourages teamwork and community - Less likely to default on loans because risk of stigma - Social support system: general become invisible after marriage (tied to household)- creates new identity for women and leads to empowerment of women and girls gender equality o Different systems/mutations For-profit systems: able to scale-up industry - Expensive to keep up because requires a lot of administration - Able to keep interest rates lower Encourage members to save and provide free healthcare - much of defaults caused by need to pay medical bills Provide school loans or university loans - Allows girls increased access to higher education Encourages women to stand up for themselves - Able to prevent domestic violence - Encourage putting both names on deed (husband and wife) - Poses a problem to religious leaders in area Microcredit as tool to empower women and decrease birth reates - Problems with stage 2 countries: high birth rates, low death rates o High dependency ratio: large population of children that are dependent on providers Leads to higher poverty because less ability to care for so many Smaller working class less taxes for policies and infrastructure o Future high unemployment when large group of children age Large quantity of unemployed males civil unrest, protests, violence Affects surrounding areas as well - Increased immigration puts stress on other economies - Possible spillover of violence o when government is corrupt, small amount of taxes collected put into pockets of government officials instead of being used for betterment of country - Stage 3 countries: once high fertility rates, but decreasing- population stabilizing - Population momentum: similar to a fast moving train- even if you put on the brakes hard, it will still take a while to slow down/stop o Population will still continue to grow for a while even if strict policies made - Stage 5 countries: shrinking population (ex. Italy) o Dependency ratio: older population dependent on young Large older population Will put strain on younger population o Possibility of political tension between old and young population Old will want to keep benefits (social security, retirement, healthcare) and young will want to get rid of it because will struggle to pay it - US and France have healthiest-looking population demographic o Immigration- especially of younger ages to offset shrinking birth rates o France has good incentives for larger families Good maternity leave Provide childcare Less fear/risk of losing jobs when have children o Doesn’t look like rest of Europe New norm of single or no children life focus on self instead of family/community - Case of China: o Huge dips in population Cultural revolution: caused famine - Shipped urban citizens to rural areas- educated weren’t very good farmers One child policy 10/5/16 - Chinese demographic has more boys than girls o Boys favored o Female infanticide o Girls up for international adoption o Families/demographic kind of like market Decreased “supply” of women Increased “demand” for women Gives women more power of choice- able to use more factors to decide mates (car, house, wealth, etc.) Distorting Chinese housing market: many parents encouraged to put down payment on houses for sons to be able to get married - Supply greatly outstripped demand- dangerous for international markets - India has high population momentum built into demographic o Starting to level off- equal replacement with children o Unequal distribution of girls/boys Selective abortion to favor boys Driving factor for boy preference is dowry - Dowry illegal, but still happens - Most common in wealthier castes - Russian demographic o More women than men Some caused by fighting in WWII (many men died) Some caused by forced labor camps in Siberia to encourage industrialization Cultural norm of risky/adventurous behavior in men accidental death Cultural norm of male bonding: tend to drink and smoke more, binge drinking Contributes to masculine mystique of Putin - Extensive agriculture: expand amount of land with population growth o Not best with regards to world peace o Once all land taken up, only way to expand is to take land from somewhere else o Two basic types: Swidden: burn plants down and let it go fallow - Also with crop rotation - Usually in places with poor soil Pastoralism: living off own animals - In places too cold or dry for agriculture - Intensive agriculture: in places with good soil o Two types: Capital intensive: produce more food on given land Labor intensive: use human labor to mimic natural processes to increase production - Organic/local agriculture is good, but not answer for everywhere o Only works in fertile areas with good infrastructure - Industrial agriculture made possible by industrial/scientific revolutions o Scientific revolution Selective breeding: raise bigger plants/animals to feed more people Government investment in agricultural technology - Urban laborers need more food at lower price to keep production of industrialization Technological advancements - Cheaper food: currently take food prices for granted o Leads to food waste, pickier eating, increased chemical application, increased disposable income - Better variety of produce Effects of selective breeding of corn: - Used as animal feed to make meat cheap - Used in many other products (high fructose corn syrup) - Less reliable on wheat - Used in ethanol: bad because breaks even with energy yields, should be used for human food - Impact of industrial revolution: o Transportation: increases ability to import/export food Less focus on local agriculture o Refrigeration and canning: also increases ability to import/export 10/7/16 - Important factors in industrialization of agriculture o Mechanization: increases scale of production, allows few people/companies to produce majority of food Contributes to price decreases in food Decreases amount of people employed in agricultural industry Mechanization bad where poverty is high - Leads to high unemployment Move to focus on local farming isn’t so backwards anymore because provides employment and increases standard of living Depends a lot on fossil fuels o Monoculture: not just on individual farms, but throughout entire regions Crop insurance incentivizes monoculture Increases risk of disease/pests - Increases impact of that disease/pests as well Increased use of pesticides - But still same amount of crop loss to pests as before pesticide use Only works well when prices are stable But prices not always stable, so huge impact of small fluctuations o Regional specialization: can lead to violence when entire region affected by price fluctuations of particular good or disease - Ghost acreage: o Wealthier countries able to rely on global food markets for food o More space to put people because less farmland Increases farmland/decreases people space in developing countries to be able to provide that food - Problems with industrial agriculture: even though there are downsides, does help feed large population and make food cheap able to spend money on other things o Pesticide resistance: natural selection for organisms that are resistant to pesticides Pesticide treadmill: 3 forces acting simultaneously when farmers begin pesticide use - Pest resurgence: pesticides kill natural predators of targeted pests easier for them to survive - Pesticide resistance - Secondary pest outbreaks Forces farmers to use increasingly more and more toxic pesticides- bad for environment and human health (bioaccumulation) o Coastal deadzones: chemicals carried into bodies of water through runoff- hurts coastal ecology o Soil degradation: best soils in world are in grasslands that have experienced glaciation Degrading soil faster than it can replenish Health soil vital for crop production o Cheap processed food: connected to poor health and obesity Sugar industry financed fake studies to prove that fats were bad instead of sugar Sugar actually way worse for human health - Carbs also part of the problem because converted into sugar o Inefficient water use Must find ways to use less water Most of produce eaten if from reproductive parts of plants (fruits, nuts, etc.) Select for plants that are good at reproduction - When all energy put into reproduction, less energy for water and nutrient processing - Selecting for reproduction creates weak plants- requires more human/resource input
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