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ENEC 201 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16

by: Hadley Ashford

ENEC 201 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16 ENEC 201

Hadley Ashford
GPA 3.776

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These notes cover demography and food
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENEC 201 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by GANGI,GREGORY J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY in Environment and Ecology at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

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Date Created: 10/07/16
ENEC 210 Week 7 Notes: 10/3/16-10/7/16 10/3/16 - Microcredit started by Muhamed Eunice o Noticed a lot of economic theory didn’t work in Bangladesh  Mostly top-down  Lots of foreign aid going in, but not much being done with it o Noticed many beggar women whose lives could be improved with just small sums of money o Started giving them loans out of his own pocket  Paying back loans makes them more responsible than just handouts o Tried to get banks in Bangladesh to scale this up, but they didn’t want to give loans to people without collateral (beggars/poor/women don’t usually have property to act as collateral) o Established Grameen Bank instead  Focuses mostly on women, men can use bank, but only through women o Problems: for-profit microcredit in India  People given incentives to sign up in rural areas  Targeted mostly men- unable to pay back loans  Bank possesses a lot of their property and many men committed suicide o Benefits  Significant reductions in poverty  Reduction of domestic violence - Large stride toward gender equality  Much of women’s income goes back into household economy - Increased education of children - Decreased poverty in family - Empowerment of female children  Encourages teamwork and community - Less likely to default on loans because risk of stigma - Social support system: general become invisible after marriage (tied to household)- creates new identity for women and leads to empowerment of women and girls  gender equality o Different systems/mutations  For-profit systems: able to scale-up industry - Expensive to keep up because requires a lot of administration - Able to keep interest rates lower  Encourage members to save and provide free healthcare - much of defaults caused by need to pay medical bills  Provide school loans or university loans - Allows girls increased access to higher education  Encourages women to stand up for themselves - Able to prevent domestic violence - Encourage putting both names on deed (husband and wife) - Poses a problem to religious leaders in area  Microcredit as tool to empower women and decrease birth reates - Problems with stage 2 countries: high birth rates, low death rates o High dependency ratio: large population of children that are dependent on providers  Leads to higher poverty because less ability to care for so many  Smaller working class  less taxes for policies and infrastructure o Future high unemployment when large group of children age  Large quantity of unemployed males  civil unrest, protests, violence  Affects surrounding areas as well - Increased immigration puts stress on other economies - Possible spillover of violence o when government is corrupt, small amount of taxes collected put into pockets of government officials instead of being used for betterment of country - Stage 3 countries: once high fertility rates, but decreasing- population stabilizing - Population momentum: similar to a fast moving train- even if you put on the brakes hard, it will still take a while to slow down/stop o Population will still continue to grow for a while even if strict policies made - Stage 5 countries: shrinking population (ex. Italy) o Dependency ratio: older population dependent on young  Large older population  Will put strain on younger population o Possibility of political tension between old and young population  Old will want to keep benefits (social security, retirement, healthcare) and young will want to get rid of it because will struggle to pay it - US and France have healthiest-looking population demographic o Immigration- especially of younger ages to offset shrinking birth rates o France has good incentives for larger families  Good maternity leave  Provide childcare  Less fear/risk of losing jobs when have children o Doesn’t look like rest of Europe  New norm of single or no children life  focus on self instead of family/community - Case of China: o Huge dips in population  Cultural revolution: caused famine - Shipped urban citizens to rural areas- educated weren’t very good farmers  One child policy 10/5/16 - Chinese demographic has more boys than girls o Boys favored o Female infanticide o Girls up for international adoption o Families/demographic kind of like market  Decreased “supply” of women  Increased “demand” for women  Gives women more power of choice- able to use more factors to decide mates (car, house, wealth, etc.)  Distorting Chinese housing market: many parents encouraged to put down payment on houses for sons to be able to get married - Supply greatly outstripped demand- dangerous for international markets - India has high population momentum built into demographic o Starting to level off- equal replacement with children o Unequal distribution of girls/boys  Selective abortion to favor boys  Driving factor for boy preference is dowry - Dowry illegal, but still happens - Most common in wealthier castes - Russian demographic o More women than men  Some caused by fighting in WWII (many men died)  Some caused by forced labor camps in Siberia to encourage industrialization  Cultural norm of risky/adventurous behavior in men  accidental death  Cultural norm of male bonding: tend to drink and smoke more, binge drinking  Contributes to masculine mystique of Putin - Extensive agriculture: expand amount of land with population growth o Not best with regards to world peace o Once all land taken up, only way to expand is to take land from somewhere else o Two basic types:  Swidden: burn plants down and let it go fallow - Also with crop rotation - Usually in places with poor soil  Pastoralism: living off own animals - In places too cold or dry for agriculture - Intensive agriculture: in places with good soil o Two types:  Capital intensive: produce more food on given land  Labor intensive: use human labor to mimic natural processes to increase production - Organic/local agriculture is good, but not answer for everywhere o Only works in fertile areas with good infrastructure - Industrial agriculture made possible by industrial/scientific revolutions o Scientific revolution  Selective breeding: raise bigger plants/animals to feed more people  Government investment in agricultural technology - Urban laborers need more food at lower price to keep production of industrialization  Technological advancements - Cheaper food: currently take food prices for granted o Leads to food waste, pickier eating, increased chemical application, increased disposable income - Better variety of produce  Effects of selective breeding of corn: - Used as animal feed to make meat cheap - Used in many other products (high fructose corn syrup) - Less reliable on wheat - Used in ethanol: bad because breaks even with energy yields, should be used for human food - Impact of industrial revolution: o Transportation: increases ability to import/export food  Less focus on local agriculture o Refrigeration and canning: also increases ability to import/export 10/7/16 - Important factors in industrialization of agriculture o Mechanization: increases scale of production, allows few people/companies to produce majority of food  Contributes to price decreases in food  Decreases amount of people employed in agricultural industry  Mechanization bad where poverty is high - Leads to high unemployment  Move to focus on local farming isn’t so backwards anymore because provides employment and increases standard of living  Depends a lot on fossil fuels o Monoculture: not just on individual farms, but throughout entire regions  Crop insurance incentivizes monoculture  Increases risk of disease/pests - Increases impact of that disease/pests as well  Increased use of pesticides - But still same amount of crop loss to pests as before pesticide use  Only works well when prices are stable  But prices not always stable, so huge impact of small fluctuations o Regional specialization: can lead to violence when entire region affected by price fluctuations of particular good or disease - Ghost acreage: o Wealthier countries able to rely on global food markets for food o More space to put people because less farmland  Increases farmland/decreases people space in developing countries to be able to provide that food - Problems with industrial agriculture: even though there are downsides, does help feed large population and make food cheap  able to spend money on other things o Pesticide resistance: natural selection for organisms that are resistant to pesticides  Pesticide treadmill: 3 forces acting simultaneously when farmers begin pesticide use - Pest resurgence: pesticides kill natural predators of targeted pests  easier for them to survive - Pesticide resistance - Secondary pest outbreaks  Forces farmers to use increasingly more and more toxic pesticides- bad for environment and human health (bioaccumulation) o Coastal deadzones: chemicals carried into bodies of water through runoff- hurts coastal ecology o Soil degradation: best soils in world are in grasslands that have experienced glaciation  Degrading soil faster than it can replenish  Health soil vital for crop production o Cheap processed food: connected to poor health and obesity  Sugar industry financed fake studies to prove that fats were bad instead of sugar  Sugar actually way worse for human health - Carbs also part of the problem because converted into sugar o Inefficient water use  Must find ways to use less water  Most of produce eaten if from reproductive parts of plants (fruits, nuts, etc.)  Select for plants that are good at reproduction - When all energy put into reproduction, less energy for water and nutrient processing - Selecting for reproduction creates weak plants- requires more human/resource input


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