Facism and the Road to War - Test 2 (10/06)
Facism and the Road to War - Test 2 (10/06) HIST 1020
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayden Notetaker on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Burel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Facismand theRoad to War (10-06) Wednesday, October 5, 201611:01 AM Facism and the Roadto War • Totalitarian Models ○ Communism § Mostly representd by the Soviet Union § Looked particularly successsful to many outsiders in the USSR at the time □ Despite the fact that these successes are now aparent § The USSR'ssystem was NOT the only alternative to Western Democracy ○ Facism § It appears as an alternative to communism and democracy § Extreme Nationalism § Social darwinist ideas (Strongest militaristic survives) § Communism and Facism are both totalitarian but are not the same type of government at all § Mussolini: leader of the Facist party & dictator of Italy (1922-1943) □ Facism:form of radical authoritarian nationalismthat came to prominence in early 20th-centuryEurope, influenced by national syndicalism. Fascism originated in Italy during World War I and Marxism and anarchism and is usually placed on the far-rightwithin thetraditional left –rightspectru □ Political ideology that advocates authoritarian leadership, intense national loyalty,cultural renewal, and rejection ofboth liberal democracyandsocialism ○ Germany during the Weimar Republic § Hyperinflation Crisis (1921-1924) □ Dawes Plan ® Effort to restructure the debt ® Germans take loans from American banks to pay off their debts to French and British □ "New" peaceful Germany - must pay reparations from WWI on a normal schedule □ Can't afford these payments so they just print more ® Germans take loans from American banks to pay off their debts to French and British □ "New" peaceful Germany - must pay reparations from WWI on a normal schedule □ Can't afford these payments so they just print more money (money becomes worthless) § Golden Era □ Art and Architecture □ Inclusive cultural and social life □ Conservative distaste ® A lot of the people whowere used to the old German regime did not like the new free Weimar republic § Great Depression □ Withdrawal of Loans ® Causes Germans to no longer pay their debts □ Political instability ○ Rise of Hitler § Adolf Hitler □ Austrian by Birth □ Fought for Germans in WWI § Hitler's rise of power in the Nazi party □ Grows popular due to speeches □ Tries to lead a failed coup in Munich call the "Beer Hall Putsch" □ Imprisoned and writes "Mein Kampf" § Hitler Rises to political power □ Nazi party wins election □ Hitler appointed to Chancellor, but given increasing power □ 1933 Enabling Act gave Hitler power to Enact laws without the Reichstag (legislature) ® Basically making him the dictator ○ Nazi Policies in Germany § Racial Pseudo-science □ Aryan Race ® Blonde haired blue eyed Germans □ Racial categorization and Eugenics § State Anti-Semitism □ Stab in the Back Myth ® Says the Jews are to blame for causing the Germans a loss in WWI ® Blonde haired blue eyed Germans □ Racial categorization and Eugenics § State Anti-Semitism □ Stab in the Back Myth ® Says the Jews are to blame for causing the Germans a loss in WWI □ Restrictions and removals ® Jews in important government positions are removed ® Restricted from certain jobs and eventually more § Anti-communism □ Arrest and persecute communist § Social Conservatism □ Persecution of homosexuality □ Traditional gender roles ® Women are at home, and men are out working § Triumph of the Will - 1935- Leni Riefenstahl □ Nazi propaganda □ Hitler is portrayed as powerful and highly respected □ Says the Nazi Party are the rebuilders of Germany □ Portrays that the Nazis are the dominant force in Germany now § Kristallnacht □ November 1938 □ Interior of Berlin Synagogue and damaged Jewish owned business □ Designed effort to terrorize Jews ® Burned Jewish business and synagogues • Nationalist China and the Coming Crisis in the East ○ Post-Qing dynasty § Sun Yatsen § Yun Shikai □ Tries to become an emperor, but destabilizes the constitutional government § Warlord era □ Each region dominated by a warlord with soldiers ○ Nationalist Reconsolidation § KMT □ Nationalist party □ Chiang Kaishek ® Leader of the party ® Heir to reunify China □ "Great Northern Expedition" § KMT □ Nationalist party □ Chiang Kaishek ® Leader of the party ® Heir to reunify China □ "Great Northern Expedition" ® Brings together the core regions of China □ Shanghai Massacre (1927) ® Massacre of the communist sympathizers ® Makes communist and nationalist enemies § Communist Party of China □ Mao Zedong ○ Militarism in Japan § Military supremacy over civilian authorities § Nations should be measured by their military strength § Japan as a leading East Asian civilization ○ Role of the Great depression § Demolishes the democratic government in Japan and furthers idea of militarism ○ Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy ○ Towards expanded Japanese Empire § Greater East Asia Co-prosperity sphere □ Raw imperialism ○ The Manchurian Crisis § Emperor Hirohito § Manchurian Incident □ Blow up a railroad as an excuse to move the japanese military into Manchuria □ Manchurian Puppet state formed ® Manchukuo - makes it seem Japanese did not conquer § The League's response and Japanese Exit □ When the League doesn’t do anything it makes them seem weak and that they will take no action • The Road to War ○ Mussolini's Italian Empire § Italian-Ethiopian war □ Italians take over last free state in Africa, Ethiopia ○ German Rearment and Challenges to Versailles § Hitler;s duplicitous Foreign policy § Remilitarization of Rhineland □ Challenge French and League § Lebensraum □ Italians take over last free state in Africa, Ethiopia ○ German Rearment and Challenges to Versailles § Hitler;s duplicitous Foreign policy § Remilitarization of Rhineland □ Challenge French and League § Lebensraum □ Wants to take most of Eastern Europe for his people (Hitler) □ Says Germans deserve more room ○ In Asia § 2nd Sino-Japanese War □ Beat back chinese fairly swiftly § Marco Polo Bridge ○ French and British Inertia § Against confronting Germany and Italy because they don’t want to goto war again like WWI § Maginot Line □ Superior fortifications in France to prevent German invasion § Committement to self determination □ Hitler says all Germans should live in Germany ○ Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) § Republican Spain □ Left-leaning democratic government § Nationalist Spain □ Francisco Franco leads military coup to overthrow democracy for totalitarianism § Intervention □ The USSR support republican Spain □ The Nazi Reich & Mussolini Italy support the totalitarian Franco □ Becomes a trial run for the Nazi war plans ○ German territorial gains § The Anschluss (1938) □ The annexation of Austria into Germany □ Expressly forbidden by the treaty of Versailles with no military response from British or French § Sudeten LandCrisis & the Annexation of Czechoslovakia □ Given agreement to annex the german speaking Sudeten land □ Munich conference ® Says that this is the end of Germany's spread ® Hitler agrees to this § Sudeten LandCrisis & the Annexation of Czechoslovakia □ Given agreement to annex the german speaking Sudeten land □ Munich conference ® Says that this is the end of Germany's spread ® Hitler agrees to this □ Appeasement ® Give someone what they want to avoid war ® British and French did this to Hitler § Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939-1941) □ Mutual non aggression between USSR and Germany □ Partition of Poland between the two (Secret) □ Wartime Supply for Germany ® Sell the Germans supplies in the event of a war § Ideological Enemies □ USSR justifications ® Stalin thinks he can buy time and let Germany and democracies fight to weakenone another so the USSR can come in later and defeat all □ Nazi Justification ® Hitler thinks he can go to war with France without having to fight a 2 front war against USSR § The Poland Crisis □ Germany invades Poland □ British and French Ultimatum ® Finally put their foot downwhen Germany invades Poland ® Says remove all of your troops from Poland or there will be war ○ Hitler's War in Europe □ The Phony War ® No fighting between western fron between Germany France and Britain □ Mechanized warfare ® Much more advanced ® Tank technology □ Blitzkrieg ® Armored units without infantry to quickly take places, infantry follows later ® Fiction: not that many more tanks than other, they use them differently (separate them from infantry) □ Surrender of France (1940) ® Demoralization ® Vichy France places, infantry follows later ® Fiction: not that many more tanks than other, they use them differently (separate them from infantry) □ Surrender of France (1940) ® Demoralization ® Vichy France ® Collaboration ◊ Allow false regime in France to back Germans □ Evacuation at Dunkirk • Military Aeronautics since WWI ○ Changes since WWI § Monoplane deigns § Powerful engines § Better aerodynamics § Greater payload capacities § Greater operating ranges ○ Air superiority § Whoever controls the air, opens a whole range of tactics ○ Bombing tactics § Dive bombing - ground support § Tactical bombing § Strategic bombers □ Fly over cities and drop large payloads of bombs • The Battle of Britain ○ Outcomes: § Hitler's Invasion Failed! § Decided by air § The blitz after the invasion seemed unlikely ○ British technology: § Chain Home system □ The world's first radar system □ They could see the attack coming and meet the attackers unexpectedly § British Royal air force ○ Hitler fails because: § He no longer focuses on destroying the important infrastructure of Britain but rather terrror bombing in an attempt to make the British surrender • The Early stages of the Pacific war ○ Japanese Expansion in China and Pacific § Wanted to make china a puppet state but Chinese were stronger than e ○ Rape of Nanjing British surrender • The Early stages of the Pacific war ○ Japanese Expansion in China and Pacific § Wanted to make china a puppet state but Chinese were stronger than e ○ Rape of Nanjing § Capitalist of the nationalist government § Torture and rape of the people in the cities ○ American Sanctions § Will no longer sell oil to Japan § This scares Japanese - try to knock out Americans because they need their resources § Seems facist across the world are winning
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