His 106: Week 7 Notes
His 106: Week 7 Notes His 106
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday October 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 106 at University of Mississippi taught by Jared Heath Roll in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 10/07/16
Progressivism and the Great War Despite the return of prosperity, the problems of American development remained: poverty, dangerous working conditions, terrible living conditions, and corruption. A broad array of reform groups tried to solve these problems beginning around 1900 – they have collectively become known as Progressives. They have rising expectations about the lives they should enjoy: cleaner, safer, and more trustworthy government. They launched the Progressive Movement, which sought political reform to make American society controlled by Progressives. Progressives Unlike Populists and labor activists of earlier decades, Progressives were middle class people from towns and cities, who start to address American problems. o Jane Addams Hull House (1889) – settlement houses located in the midst of immigrant neighborhoods; used for outreach in immigrant communities Henry St. (New York) – replica of Addams’ Hull House o National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs (1895) o Women’s Trade Union League – wanted to amplify women’s voice in labor o Florence Kelley – worked at Hull House; she pushed for a factory inspection law, to give the government the power to inspect for working conditions o Muller v Oregon (1908) – Oregon wanted to ensure that women couldn’t work in factories for more than 8 hours a day; Supreme Court declared it constitutional By 1912, 28 other states had sent in maximum working hours for females Social Gospel Many Christians asked “What Would Jesus Do?” to answer Henry George’s question. They believed he would reach out to the poor. This was religious justification for the Progressive movement. Women’s Voting Rights National American Women Suffrage Association (1890) – believed that if men are innately corrupt and women are pure, then allowing women to participate in the government would purify it. o This led to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Role of Government in Society The government was the key to Progression, and much of the support came from the Republican Party. Democracy began expanding measures. o Referendum – a general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision o Recall – allows voters to take out elected officials if the voters are dissatisfied o Initiative Progressive government – more democracy or more control? Progressive Journalism (Muckrakers) Ida Tarbell – exposed Standard Oil Upton Sinclair – exposed meat packing industry Theodore Roosevelt (R) 19011909 Trust busting (breaking down monopolies) o IMPORTANT: Roosevelt did not believe that all big business were bad. Environmental protection (conservation and hunting) Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 – passed after “The Jungle” by Upton Sinclair was published Hepburn Act 1906 – gave the federal government the power to regulate railroads William Howard Taft (R) 19091913 Taft was a handpicked successor by Roosevelt Signed off on the 16 Amendment, which authorized a federal income tax Election of 1912 Taft (Republican) v Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) v T. Roosevelt (Progressive Party of America) v Eugene Debs (Socialist Party) o Roosevelt’s New Nationalism: big business is okay, but only if matched by regulatory power of big government o Wilson’s New Freedom: big government would be used to break up big businesses (which he believed were corrupt) to restore traditional economic relationship Woodrow Wilson wins, but only because Roosevelt caused the Republican votes to be split between him and Taft. Wilson as a Progressive President 17 Amendment (1913) – allowed for a direct election of senators Clayton AntiTrust Act (1914) – gives government right to control big businesses, and grants organized labor the right to strike Federal Reserve Act (1913) – authorizes federal paper currency Federal Trade Commission (1914) – allows government to regulate stock markets There were also laws regulating the employment for sailors, railroad workers, and child labor, which set maximum working hours and wages o IMPORTANT: This is different from the Hepburn Act. Even though Wilson was a southern Progressive, he still segregated federal government employees by race, and valorized the Ku Klux Klan. Outbreak of World War I (19141918) America was officially neutral, but they tilted toward the Allies (UK, France, Russia). However, trade, finance, and the cultural bias of leaders prevented the U.S. from staying totally separated. The U.S. reserved the right to trade with warring countries (favored Great Britain). U.S. immigrants sided with their own home countries, which made the moral of the U.S. hopelessly complicated. Even though they were still officially neutral by 1916, the U.S. provided 40% of Great Britain’s war materials. German Uboats began attacking American merchant ships. o Lusitania sinks in 1915 – a passenger ship carrying war goods – 1200 passengers are killed When trading partners run out of money, American bankers loan them money so they can continue buying materials. Wilson runs for President again in 1916, which sparks the Preparedness Movement. Preparedness Movement (19151917) Americans knew they would go to war eventually, it was only a matter of time. Military buildup Roosevelt proposes the idea of 100% Americanism, because they were concerned with immigrant loyalty. “Americanism is an unfailing love of country; loyalty to its institutions and ideals; eagerness to defend it against all enemies; undivided allegiance to the flag and a desire to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and posterity.” Peace Movement Women’s Peace Party – headed by Jane Addams Recognized isolationism, especially in the South and West, especially among the poor. o “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.” Wilson was reelected in 1916 on a peace platform – he was the man who kept us out of the war. The Pull of War Germany restarts unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman telegram, February 1917 o Telegram intercepted by Great Britain in which Germany urges Mexico to go to war against the U.S. Germany promises to give back Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona to Mexico April 1917, U.S. declares war “to end all wars” Progressive Government at War Can’t have a big war without big government Income tax increases from 281 million to 2.88 billion Excess corporate profit tax New National bureaucracies to mobilize and run the war: o War Industries Board o War Fuel Administration o War Food Administration o War Railroad Administration o War Labor Board o Committee on Public Information This was the largest expansion of the federal government up to that point.